Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and protein found in a cell. There are normally 46 chromosomes in a human cell- 23 pairs. You should get 23 from your mother’s egg & another 23 from your father’s sperm. Sometimes these chromosomes can encounter a problem. The two main problems being deletion of a chromosome or an extra chromosome.
Chromosome 13 is a chromosome that everyone has a pair of. It normally takes up about 3.5-4% of the total DNA in cells. There are about 600-700 genes in chromosome 13. It also contains around 114 million building blocks of DNA. If any part of your chromosome 13 gets deleted, Tran located, or multiplied you may experience serious health problems.
Some people receive an extra copy of chromosome 13 during the formation of reproductive cells or during embryonic development. These people will have a condition know as Trisomy 13. Trisomy 13 affects normal development. Some symptoms include small head, small eyes, seizures, low-set ears, and clenched hands. About 1 out of every 10,000 newborns are born with this defect and about 80% of those diagnosed with it die in their first year. You can prevent Trisomy 13 by amniocentesis (study of the amniotic cells) before birth.
Another problem that might occur in chromosome 21 is deletion. When this occurs a tumor may appear in the eyeball. This is called Retinoblastoma. This mutation occurs normally in kids ages 1-6 and their family rarely has a background of this mutation. Some symptoms of this include crossed eyes, double visions, eye pain, eye redness and unaligned eyes. This tumor can be treated but some patients lose an eye in order to be cured. If the tumor spreads it will become harder to cure. In both treatments radiation is used. There is no exact way to prevent it but you should speak to a doctor if members of your family already have it because it makes it more common in your children. There are 46 chromosomes in each cell- 23...