1. What is anxiety disorder; explain it (3 points)
Anxiety is a mood state characterized by strong negative emotion and bodily symptoms of tension in which the child anxiously expects possible future danger or misfortune. This definition takes two key characteristics of anxiety—strong negative emotion and an element of fear. Children who experience excessive and debilitating anxieties are said to have anxiety disorders.
2. What are specific phobias in children, explain 2 specific phobias. (4 points) DSM categorizes specific phobias into five subtypes, based on the focus of the phobic reaction and avoidance. These subtypes and the focus of fear of each are as follows: • Animal. Animals or insects.
• Natural environment. Objects in the natural environment, such as heights, darkness, storms, or water. • Blood–injection–injury. Seeing blood or an injury, or receiving an injection or other invasive medical procedure. • Situational. A specific situation, such as flying in airplanes, riding in elevators, going through tunnels or over bridges, driving, or being in enclosed places. • Other. Phobic avoidance of loud sounds or costumed characters, or of situations that may lead to choking, vomiting, or contracting an illness.
3. Explain panic attacks in children, explain symptoms for panic attack (3 points) A panic attack is a sudden and overwhelming period of intense fear or discomfort that is accompanied by four or more physical and cognitive symptoms characteristic of the fight/flight response. Usually, a panic attack is short, with symptoms reaching maximal intensity in 10 minutes or less and then diminishing slowly over the next 30 minutes or the next few hours. Although they are brief, they can occur several times a week or month. It is important to remember that although the symptoms are dramatic, they are not physically harmful or dangerous. Panic attacks are extremely rare in young children. Symptoms are palpitations, pounding heart, sweating, trembling, sensations of shortness of breath, feeling of chocking, chest pain, nausea or abnormal distress, feeling dizzy, derealization (feeling of unreality), or depersonalization (being detected from oneself, fear of losing control, fear of dying.
4. Explain Posttraumatic stress disorders in children shortly. Explain the factors that can influence the process of recovery of children with PTSD (4 points) Children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display persistent anxiety following an overwhelming traumatic event that occurs outside the range of usual human experience. When the diagnosis of PTSD was first introduced, the reference points were catastrophic events, such as war, torture, rape, natural disasters (e.g earthquakes and hurricanes), and disasters of human origin (e.g., fires and automobile accidents). Three core features of PTSD: 1) persistent re-experiencing of the event,
2) avoidance of associated stimuli and numbing of general responsiveness, and 3) symptoms of extreme arousal
Cognitive–behavioral treatment involving imaginal or real-life exposure to feared stimuli has been shown to be a promising treatment for helping children with PTSD. Several factors appear to be important in children’s course of recovery from PTSD, including the nature of the traumatic event, preexisting child characteristics, and social support.
5. Explain your treatment approach in psychotherapy of children for one of anxiety disorder.(3 points)
1. What is mood disorder and what are major types of mood disorders (4 points) A mood disorder is in which a disturbance in mood is the central feature. Mood is broadly defined as a feeling or emotion, for example, sadness, happiness, anger, elation, or crankiness. Children with mood disorders suffer from extreme, persistent, or poorly regulated emotional states, such as excessive unhappiness or swings in mood from deep sadness to high elation. Mood disorders are...