Child Mortality in India

Topics: Child mortality, Demography, Total fertility rate Pages: 21 (7382 words) Published: September 27, 2008
Child Malnutrition and Mortality : Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis Abstract
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) call for a two-thirds reduction in the mortality rate among children under age five between 1990 and 2015. Accurate and timely estimates of under-five mortality are needed to help countries set priorities, design programmes to reduce mortality, and monitor progress towards the MDG4. Developing these estimates poses a considerable challenge because of the limited data available for many developing countries and lack of agreement on the best way to calculate child mortality levels and trends. The paper is divided into two sections. Firstly, the determinants of Child Mortality are examined. It specifically examines how child mortality is related to the household’s environmental and socio-economic characteristics, such as female literacy, total fertility, per capita GDP, per capita expenditure on health care facilities, physicians available per lakh of population and population living below the national poverty line. A multiple linear regression model is used to analyze the effects of different factors on under-five mortality rate. Reduction of Child mortality as a part of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been discussed and the performance of different countries in this respect has been investigated. A household’s environmental and socio-economic characteristics are found to have significant impact on child mortality. Policies aimed at achieving the goal of reduced child mortality should be directed on improving the household’s environmental and or socio-economic status if this goal is to be realized. The second part of the paper deals with the performance of India in respect to Child Mortality, the developments in the country overtime and the trends for the future.Under-five infant mortality rates in India have fallen to 73 per 1,000 live births in 2006, from 94 per 1,000 in 1990. That's a 22% decline, which is extremely good news, although it still represents 1.9 million deaths. India's success in bringing mortality rates down is due to putting a large percentage of its budget into the health and social sector, and investing in the health sector, facilities and frontline health workers.


AARR - Average annual rate of reduction
AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ASFR - Age Specific Fertility Rates
CEE/CIS - Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States CM Child - Mortality
FLR Female - Literacy Rate
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
HEPC - Health Expenditure Per Capita
HDR - Human Development Report
IMR - Infant mortality rate
MDG - Millennium Development Goal
PCGDP -Per Capita Gross Domestic Product
TFR - Total Fertility Rate
U5MR - Under-five mortality rate
UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Fund
UNPD - United Nations Population Division
WHO - World Health Organization

Child mortality refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five. About 26,000 young children die every day, mainly from preventable causes. In 2006, 9.7 million children under five died a 60% decline since 1960. About half of child deaths occur in Africa. Approximately 60 countries make up 94% of under five child deaths. According to an estimate by UNICEF, one million child deaths could be prevented annually at a cost of $US 1 billion per year (an average of $US 1000 for each child). Child Mortality or the under-five mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of five if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Policies aimed at achieving the goal of reduced child mortality should be directed on improving the country’s and household’s socio-economic status if this goal is to be realized. Reducing mortality and improving the health of young children has long been a concern of the...
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