IB Chemistry SL
Due Date: 07 March 2013
Dates Experiment Was Conducted: 27, 28, 29 February 2013
How does altering the temperature at which calcium carbonate and 1.0 M hydrochloric acid react, affect the rate of reaction?
The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate how changing the temperature at which a reaction takes place, either by lowering the temperature or making the temperature rise, affects the rate at which the reaction proceeds. To demonstrate how changing the temperature at which a reaction takes place affects the rate of the reaction, the reaction between calcium carbonate and 1.0 M hydrochloric acid will be observed at 5 various temperature readings. The 5 varying temperatures are targeted towards being at 10ºC, 20ºC, 30ºC, 40ºC, and 50ºC. It is highly improbable that each trial for each of the 5 different temperatures will be the exact temperature that was targeted, so it’s just important that you end up having a temperature fairly close to the targeted temperatures so that the rates of reactions that you do receive are as correct as possible. The rates of reaction will be obtained using an apparatus that will guide the carbon dioxide gas being produced from the reaction between the 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate from a reaction chamber into a flask containing water. This experiment will be performed by placing about 3.0 grams of calcium carbonate chips into a flask containing 35 mL of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid at one of the targeted temperatures. This flask is called the reaction chamber because it is the flask that contains the actual occurring reaction. The reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid creates carbon dioxide as one of its products. When the carbon dioxide goes through the tube connected to the plug that seals the reaction chamber it enters the flask containing the water the water will be pushed up a different tube and will displaced into a 50 mL graduated cylinder where you can measure how long it takes for the water to be displaced up to a certain mark on the graduated cylinder using a stopwatch. In this specific experiment you will measure how long it takes for 15 mL of water to be displaced by the carbon dioxide gas being produced from the actual reaction.
The rate of a chemical reaction is inversely related to time. This means that the longer a reaction takes, the lower its rate. Rate can either be measured by the increase of product concentration divided by the time taken to achieve that concentration or by the decrease of reactant concentration divided by the time taken to reach that concentration of reactant (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). The collision theory states that a chemical reaction is dependent on the collisions between reacting molecules (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). But, for a reaction to occur, these molecules must collide in the correct orientation and they must collide with sufficient energy to be able to overcome the activation energy needed for a reaction to take place (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). Factors that have an effect on the rate of a reaction include the concentration of reactants at the beginning of a reaction, the surface area of the reactants, pressure at which the reaction held, the use of a catalyst, and the temperature at which a reaction is held(An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). Increasing the concentration of the reactants at the initiation of a reaction increases the rate of the reaction because as the concentration increases, the frequency of successful collisions between reacting particles increases as well (Ford 123). Therefore,...