Aim: To determine which gas, Ammonia or hydrogen chloride defuses faster.
Hypothesis: Ammonia will defuse faster than hydrogen chloride.
Materials Equipment: Chemicals: * 2 retort clamp and stand Ammonia * 1 ½ m glass tube
* 2 250cm3 beakers
* Cotton Wool
* Stop clock
* Meter rule
* 2 Rubber bum
* The equipment was collected.
* The glass tube was placed between the two clamps ensuring that it was leveled. * A small amount of hydrochloric acid was poured into the beaker. * The cotton wool was placed at one end of the glass tube using tweezers. Seal it off with a rubber bum. * Repeating steps 3-5 simultaneously.
* The stop clock was started, keeping record of time taken to the white cloud to form. * The meter rule was used to measure the distance of the white cloud from each end of the tube.
Chemical| Distance| Time ( in sec)| Rate of Diffusion| Molecular weight | Ammonia| 90| 285| 0.315| 17.03|
Hydrochloric acid| 60| 285| 0.210| 36.46|
Interpretation of results: The purpose of the glass tube is to eliminate air currents and to let the gas molecules will move on their own. The gas molecules follow a path through the tube as they collide with the air molecules in the tube. Ammonia will diffuses faster because it has a faster rate of diffusion and it is almost twice a light as Hydrochloric acid. A cloud like figure should show up when the gases collide.
Conclusion: The reaction which is taking place is:
ammonia + hydrogen chloride → ammonium chloride
NH3 (g) + HCl (g) → NH4Cl (s)
The exact time taken for the cloud to form depended on the dimensions of the tube, and the amount of the solutions which are put on the cotton wool. The cloud...