Chapter 3 Case Study

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A) Joseph has many risk factors, one of them including his family has a history of vascular disease, and he had not thought much about it because he was not living a healthy life style. He had gained weight from eating fatty foods, and had started smoking again. Joseph had a lot of stress from working long hours, and did nothing when he had felt tightness in his chest. These risk factors all affect cellular function. The blood slows, along with oxygen, glucose, and essential ions it carries that are required for the heart to pump, this rapidly uses up ATP supply. Eventually, the cells begin to die, and become leaky. Sodium slowly begins to leak into the cells and potassium leaks out. B) The cellular process that is normally affected when the heart stops beating is aerobic respiration. Glucose begins the process in glycolysis and oxygen is required for reactions in the mitochondria. Carbon dioxide is then produced as a byproduct, which is a waste that requires to be excreted. When Carbon dioxide level inside the cell rose and PH began to drop, the mitochondria had no more oxygen and glucose to make essential ATP energy. Eventually the cells began to die, active transport pumps shut down the plasma membrane of the heart cells. The cells become leaky; Sodium slowly began to leak into the cell and potassium leaked out. C) The endoplasmic reticulum and the lysosomal enzymes are intracellular organelles that have membranes as part of their structure. When these membranes breakdown it affects the heart because calcium ATPases stops moving calcium from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum of the cardiac muscle cells. When the intracellular calcim levels rise, it causes proteases to spill into the interior of the cell, attacking the cytoskeleton. Lysosomal enzymes normally bound safely inside vesicles begin to digest the plasma membranes and the membranes of the organelles. D) The instructions Joseph’s body need to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular...
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