Chapter 2 Solutions.

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CHAPTER 2
AN INTRODUCTION TO COST TERMS AND PURPOSES

2-20(15–20 min.)Classification of costs, manufacturing sector.

Cost object: Type of car assembled (Corolla or Geo Prism)
Cost variability: With respect to changes in the number of cars assembled
There may be some debate over classifications of individual items, especially with regard to cost variability.

|Cost Item |D or I |V or F | |A |D |V | |B |I |F | |C |D |F | |D |D |F | |E |D |V | |F |I |V | |G |D |V | |H |I |F |

2-22(15–20 min.)Variable costs and fixed costs.

1.Variable cost per ton of beach sand mined
Subcontractor$ 80 per ton
Government tax 50 per ton
Total$130 per ton

Fixed costs per month
0 to 100 tons of capacity per day= $150,000
101 to 200 tons of capacity per day= $300,000
201 to 300 tons of capacity per day= $450,000

2.
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The concept of relevant range is potentially relevant for both graphs. However, the question does not place restrictions on the unit variable costs. The relevant range for the total fixed costs is from 0 to 100 tons; 101 to 200 tons; 201 to 300 tons, and so on. Within these ranges, the total fixed costs do not change in total.

3.
|Tons Mined |Tons Mined |Fixed Unit |Variable Unit |Total Unit | |per Day |per Month |Cost per Ton |Cost per Ton |Cost per Ton | |(1) |(2) = (1) × 25 |(3) = FC ÷ (2) |(4) |(5) = (3) + (4) | |(a) 180 |4,500 |$300,000 ÷ 4,500 = $66.67 |$130 |$196.67 | | | | | | | |(b) 220 |5,500 |$450,000 ÷ 5,500 = $81.82 |$130 |$211.82 |

The unit cost for 220 tons mined per day is $211.82, while for 180 tons it is only $196.67. This difference is caused by the fixed cost increment from 101 to 200 tons being spread over an increment of 80 tons, while the fixed cost increment from 201 to 300 tons is spread over an increment of only 20 tons.

2-24(10–15 min.)Cost drivers and functions.

1.

|Function |Representative Cost Driver |

1. AccountingNumber of transactions processed
2. PersonnelNumber of new hires
3. Data ProcessingHours of computer processing unit (CPU)

4. Research and DevelopmentNumber of research scientists
5. PurchasingNumber of purchase orders
6. BillingNumber of invoices sent

2.

|Function |Representative Cost Driver |

1. AccountingHours of technical work
2. PersonnelNumber of employees
3. Data ProcessingNumber of computer transactions
4. Research and DevelopmentNumber of new products being developed 5. PurchasingNumber of different types of materials purchased...
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