Chapter 1 — the First Civilizations

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Chapter 1 — The First Civilizations
The Earliest Humans
Essential Question
How did humans become food producers rather than food gatherers? * Domestication of animals
* There was fertile soil to grow crops
* Hunting animals was harder
* Agriculture was a failure for a long time

I can statements
Explain why the development of agriculture was so crucial for the establishment of civilization. * Hunting wasn’t reliable
* You may not get enough food for the day by hunting/gathering * People didn’t have to chase their food
* With agriculture people had more free time
* People could begin to trade goods
Describe the advantages & disadvantages of food producers over food gatherers. Negatives
* Worse diets-less variety lacking protein
* Bigger populations-more demand
* Social and sexual inequality
* Disease
* Famine
* People began to shrink
* Wars over land
Positives
* Agriculture was easier than hunting/gathering
* Settlements
* Domestication of animals
* Variety of grown foods

Analyze the gender roles during the Paleolithic & Neolithic Ages * Men were hunters
* Women were gatherers
* Women tended to children
* Men were dominant

Concepts
Paleolithic vs. Neolithic Age
Paleolithic:
* No permanent settlement-always on the move for food (nomads) * Hunter-gatherers
* Beginning of human beings-11,000 B.C.
* Sophisticated kind of cave painting
* Religious?-shown through cave paintings
Neolithic:
* “New Stone Age”
* 11,000 B.C.
* Discovered agriculture
* Produced food
* Larger populations
* More food supply
* First settlements
Gender Roles
* Men were hunters
* Women were gatherers
* Women tended to children
* Men were dominant
Eight Features of Civilization
* Eight Features include:
a. Cities
b. Well-organized central government
c. Complex religions
d. Job specialization
e. Social classes
f. Arts and architecture
g. Public works
h. Writing
* Specialization developed in civilizations
* Sumer was the first civilization
Terms/Events
Paleolithic Age
* The Old Stone Age
* Nomadic people
* Religious cave paintings
* Hunters/gatherers
* Beginning of human beings-11,000 B.C.
Nomadic
* Nomad: “A member of a people who have no permanent abode and travel from place to place to find fresh pasture for their livestock.”- Dictionary.com * Moved around
* Not settled
* In the Paleolithic Age mostly
Neolithic Age
* The “New Stone Age”
* First settlements-due to agriculture
* 11,000 B.C.
* Larger population
Homo Sapiens
* 250,000 years ago
2 types:
1. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
* 100,000-30,000 B.C.
* Relied on varied stone tools and were first to bury their dead * Afterlife?
* Made clothes from animal skin
2. Homo Sapiens Sapiens
* 200,000 B.C.
* Spread outside of Africa 100,000 years ago
* Replaced Neanderthal 30,000 years ago
The First Civilizations in Mesopotamia
Essential Question
Why was agriculture an essential step in the creation of river valley civilizations of Sumer and Babylon? * It supplied food for a large population
* The land there has rich soil for growing crops
* It allowed people to settle down and not have to migrate to their food * It gave people more free time- essentially why architecture could be built I can statements
Describe the characteristics of the Sumerian civilization as a significant development in Western history. * Developed cuneiform
* Was the first civilization
* Created the city of Uruk which had an estimated population of 50,000 people * Developed the sexagesmial system- based off the number 60 (still used today) * Created the “Epic of Gilgamesh”

Analyze how cuneiform inscriptions and codes revealed much about Babylonian politics,...
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