Understanding the causes of infection
1.1Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacterial and fungi infections are easy to cure with the use of antibiotics, where as viruses can be hard to cure or vaccinate against, such as the common cold. Bacteria can be found everywhere and anywhere Soil, Water, Plants, Animals, material and even deep in the earth's crust. Bacteria feed themselves by making there food with the use of sunlight and water. We would not be able to live without Bacteria. The human body consists of lots of friendly bacteria which also protect us from dangerous ones by occupying places in the body. Some of the most deadly diseases and devastating epidemics in human history have been caused by Bacteria. Pneumonia, Tuberculosis and Typhoid are three Bacterial diseases which have destroyed hundreds of millions of human lives.
Fungi are similar to plants in many ways but Fungi cannot make there own food. Fungi have to release digestive enzymes that decompose things around them, turning them into food. The fungus then absorbs the dissolved foods through the walls of its cells. Fungi can cause serious diseases to humans a example is vaginal yeast infection which is caused by overgrowth of fungus Small amounts of yeast are always in the vagina. But when too much yeast grows, you can get an infection. We also use Fungi for example yeast in food manufacturing. Yeast is needed for the fermentation of wine, beers and other alcoholic drinks. We add yeast to dough to make the bread rise when we bake it. Fungi are also used in agriculture for pest control and to protect crops from diseases. Many types of antibiotics come from fungi, such as penicillin. Penicillin works by destroying the wall of a bacterial cell. Fungal antibiotics are extensively used for treating tuberculosis. Fungi also cause athletes foot and thrush.
A parasite is an organism that lives in another organism, called the host, and often harms it. It is dependent on its host for survival, it has to be in the host to live, grow and multiply. A parasite cannot live independently. There are three main types of parasitic diseases, one of which is Protozoa this parasite is a single-cell organism which causes malaria. Another one is Helminths which is the cause for worm parasites such as roundworm, pinworm, trichina spiralis, and tapeworm. You can be infected with parasites mostly from eating uncooked fish, beef, pork or lamb. Also from drinking dirty water which is infected with human or animal feces and even from skin to skin contact, sharing bedding and wearing the same clothes.
Viruses are not living but bacteria, fungi and parasites are. They cannot grow or multiply on their own and need to enter a human or animal cell and take over the cell to help them multiply. These viruses may also infect bacterial cells. The virus particles are 100 times smaller than a single bacteria cell. Viruses are tiny organisms that may lead to mild to severe illnesses in humans, animals and plants. This may include flu or a cold to something more life threatening like HIV/AIDS. Viruses enter the body from the environment or other individuals from soil to water to air via nose, mouth, or any breaks in the skin and seek a cell to infect. cold or flu virus for example will target cells that line the respiratory or digestive tracts. Viruses also cause chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella and German measles.
1.2– Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
Diseases caused by fungi are Athlete's foot and Thrush these can both be treated with anti fungal cream. Diseases caused by bacteria are tonsillitis, Meningitis, tuberculosis, salmonella, and whooping cough and can be treated with antibiotics. Here are some diseases caused by viruses, chicken pox, common cold, influenza, flu, measles, mumps, rubella and German measles these viruses cannot be treated.