USING OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL PATIENTS AS CASE STUDY.
BEING A PROPOSAL FOR A LONG ESSAY
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
AND LITERARY STUDIES, FACULTY OF ARTS,
OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE- IFE, OSUN STATE,
HAASTRUP CHRISTOPHER FOLA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (B.A.) DEGREE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGE
1.2Statement of problem4
1.3Aim and objectives4
1.4Definition of Terms5
1.8Expected Contribution to knowledge9
1.9Summary and Conclusion9
In psycholinguistics, speech disorder involves difficulty with and /or slowness in the development of speech. The term ‘Speech sound disorder (s)’ is an umbrella heading under which there are several sub-categories that include Articulation disorder, Phonological disorder and Childhood apraxia. However, we will centre our concentration on articulation disorder in children. Webster’s Dictionary gives one definition for articulate as; “to produce a speech sound by the movement of the organs of speech.” Articulation refers to the movement of the speech mechanisms (tongue, lips, larynx, teeth, hard palate, velum [so air escapes through nose only when appropriate], jaw, nose, and mouth) to produce speech. If any of these mechanisms are not working properly, weak, damaged, malformed, or out of sync with the rest, then a speech disorder may be classified as an articulation disorder. Articulation impairment: inability to produce a perceptually acceptable version of particular phonemes, either in isolation or in any phonetic context. Children may consistently produce a specific distortion (e.g. lateral lisp) or substitute another phoneme (e.g. [w] for /r/) (Grundy 1989). Articulation is the correct movement of the speech producers to make intelligible speech. Articulation disorder can be characterized by the following: 1. Omission: sounds in words and sentences may be completely omitted. i.e. “I go o coo on the bus.” 2. Substitutions - Children do not pronounce the sounds clearly or they replace one sound for another, i.e. substitutes [w] for [l] or [r], or other similar errors. 3. The speech is primarily unintelligible and difficult to understand. Articulation disorders are indicated when a child’s speech at age 3 cannot be understood by an unfamiliar adult, and additionally, at age 8, when errors in articulation are still evident (Patterson & Wright, 1990). In some instances, articulation problems may simply represent a delay in muscle development or coordination needed for articulating specific sounds. Articulation problems can also result from a child’s chronic ear infections. Because the child could not clearly hear the speech sounds during the time in which the specific sounds were acquired, he may not have learned how to produce the specific sounds correctly. Studies of language disability have shown that articulation disorder could arise from a number of causes including paralysis, weak or poorly coordinated speech mechanism involving the larynx, lips, tongue, palate and jaw (Hardcastle, 1976; Dalton & Hardcastle 1977). This causation can be seen as physiological (physical). Neurological defects could also affect the articulation of the speech.
Oladipo salami (2005)
“…We note that language disorder, impairment or disability results from a number of physiological and neurological problems affecting language use and understanding. It evidently proves that causes of language/ speech disorder can be grouped based on physiological cause or neurological (brain) cause.” 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been observed that patients with...