A Case Study
Apilado, Alyssa Marie
Catubay, Jiro Jon
Eleazar, Shaun Joseph
Gomez, Paula Marie Katrina
Peduca, John Paolo
Resente, Kathleen May
St. Mary’s College, Quezon City
Premature birth, also coined as preterm birth, refers to birth of a baby before its organs are mature enough to survive postnatal life. Death and disability occur more often among these very preterm infants compared to moderately preterm infants. Unfortunately, all preterm infants are at greater risk of death and disability than full-term infants. Infants born preterm are at greater risk for death in the first few days of life, as well as other adverse health outcomes including visual and hearing impairments, intellectual and learning disabilities, and behavioral and emotional problems throughout life. Premature delivery occurs on mothers having health problems like diabetes, heart-related diseases, infection, and kidney diseases. Different pregnancy-related problems contribute to an increased risk of preterm labor and delivery. * An "insufficient" or weakened cervix, also called cervical incompetence * Birth defects of the uterus
* History of preterm delivery
* Poor nutrition right before or during pregnancy
* Preeclampsia -- the development of high blood pressure and protein in the urine after the 20th week of pregnancy * Premature rupture of the membranes
Other factors of preterm delivery include age (below 16 of age and older than 35), lack of prenatal care, low socioeconomic status, or use of tobacco, cocaine, or amphetamines. A premature infant’s organs are not fully developed. The infant needs further special care in a nursery to support the infant’s life. This may take weeks to months. A premature infant will have a lower birth weight than a full-term infant. Common physical signs of prematurity include: * Body hair (lanugo)
* Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) * Enlarged clitoris (female infant)
* Problems breathing due to immature lungs (neonatal respiratory distress syndrome) or pneumonia * Lower muscle tone and less activity than full-term infants * Problems feeding due to difficulty sucking or coordinating swallowing and breathing * Less body fat
* Small scrotum, smooth without ridges, and undescended testicles (male infant) * Soft, flexible ear cartilage
* Thin, smooth, shiny skin, which is often transparent (can see veins under skin) Not all premature babies will have these characteristics.
Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques have increased the survival of premature infants. The longer the pregnancy, the greater the chance of survival. Of babies born at 28 weeks, at least 90% survive. Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants have medical, developmental, or behavioral problems that continue into childhood or are permanent. The more premature an infant and the smaller the birth weight, the greater the risk of complications. However, it is impossible to predict a baby's long-term outcome based on gestational age or birth weight.
* This case presentation aims to discuss and learn about the effects, signs and symptoms of premature delivery (non-institutional premature delivery). As student nurses, we aim to know how to diagnose, prevent and give treatments that we should provide to the client for their full recovery. Specific Objectives
* To be familiar with the etiology of the condition
* To be aware of the signs and symptoms that occur with the condition * To know its complications
* To be knowledgeable on how to prevent premature delivery * To know the treatment and how to apply it
* To know the diagnostic exams that are done with the condition * To...