* The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes The conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, And political movement. in general terms, environmentalists advocate The sustainable management of resources, and the protection (and Restoration, when necessary) of the natural environment through Changes in public policy and individual behavior . In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology, health, and human rights. Though the movement is represented by a range of organizations, because of the inclusion of environmentalism in the classroom curriculum, the environmental movement has a younger demographic than is common in other social movements (see green seniors). 2. Environmentalism
* Environmentalism as a movement covers broad areas of institutional oppression. Examples of these oppressions are: consumption of ecosystems and natural resources into waste, dumping waste into disadvantaged communities, air pollution, water pollution, weak infrastructure, exposure of organic life to toxins, mono culture, anti-polythene drive (jhola movement) and various other focuses. Because of these divisions, the environmental movement can be categorized into these primary focuses: Environmental Science, Environmental Activism, Environmental Advocacy, and Environmental Justice. 3. Examples…
* Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
* CITES-Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species * Convention on combating desertification
* the Basel convention of e-waste
* Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
4. Kyoto Protocol
* The protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February. * A protocol to the United nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) aimed at fighting global warming. * UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations” in the atmosphere. * As on August 2011,191 countries have signed and ratified the protocol. * US is the only nation which has not ratified it as they believe that 5% reduction will “wreck the American economy”. * The target agreed upon was an average reduction of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the year 2012. * Kyoto Protocol provides ‘Cap and Trade’ system.
* Under the protocol 37 countries ( called ‘Annex I countries”) commit themselves to reduction of four greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydro fluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons). 5. Carbon credit
* The companies in the developed world are required to meet certain carbon emission target set by their respective government. However if these companies are not able to meet their emission targets, they have an alternative of purchasing these carbon credits from the market i.e. from someone who is successful in meeting these targets and who has a surplus of these credits. This process is known as carbon trading. * Carbon trading is also very advantageous for the companies of the developing world as it provides monetary gains in exchange of carbon credits which help these companies to purchase or change their technology. This change in technology eventually helps the companies to reduce carbon emission. * India is the 2nd largest seller of Carbon credits in the world (6% share) While China tops the chart 73% share. * The need for carbon trading was felt when it was realized that the industries have been the biggest polluter of green house gases which has resulted in global warming * A lot of effort was put in by the NGOs and other institutions to bring the attention of the world towards the problem of global warming. But this issue was not taken very seriously so in order to get the attention of the world towards these problems...