Precisely define the concept of "ethics" is quite difficult. In a general sense ethics - a set of moral principles and values that govern the behavior of a person or group of people and determining the positive and negative assessments of their thoughts and actions. Ethics associated with inner values, and they in its turn are part of the corporate culture and influence on decision making, determine their social validity within the environment. Ethical problem arises when the actions of an individual or organization may harm or conversely benefit others. Since ethics are unwritten rules, the issue of assessing an action often has irreconcilable differences. The so-called ethical dilemma arises in a situation where all the alternative solutions or courses of action because of its potentially negative moral consequences are undesirable, it is difficult to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong. Person who assumes responsibility for the organization of emerging ethical issues, often referred to as an agent of morality. This assignment examines the various approaches to the ethical issues, the study of which allows management to develop criteria for their analysis and solutions.
2.1 The Four approaches to make ethical decision
Most ethical dilemmas is a conflict between the whole thing and its parts: the organization and the individual, the community and the organization. For example, should the company be subject to mandatory testing of their employees in the use of drugs and alcohol, which can benefit from it, but it restricts the freedom of action of individuals? Is it right to export goods that do not meet national quality standards in other countries with less stringent requirements? Sometimes ethically complex solutions involve a conflict between the two groups. For example, what is more important: the pollution caused by wastewater businesses or jobs that it creates, as the largest employer? Faced with the problems of an ethical choice, managers tend to be based on a normative point of view, that are certain norms and values, in accordance with which decisions are made. In normative ethics identify several approaches to the description of the system of values and hence the adoption of ethically difficult decisions, which can be used in the practice of management: THE UTILITARIAN APPROACH, THE RIGHTS APPROACH, THE FAIRNESS OR JUSTICE APPROACHES AND THE VIRTUE APPROACH.
2.2 The Utilitarian Approach
Basic principles developed in the XIX century by philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill's utilitarian approach states that appropriate behavior morality brings the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people. An individual decision-maker should review the impact of each option on all of its stakeholders, and to lay the one that brings satisfaction to the greatest number of people. In essence, it is about finding the best solution. As the complete calculations can be quite complex, allowed simplified conditions. For example, the calculation of costs and benefits in monetary terms can be used a simple economic criterion. In addition, while deciding rightly consider the situation only directly affected their sides. Utilitarian ethics justifies the introduction of a ban on the use of alcohol and smoking in the workplace, and in some cases at the end of work, as this behavior has a negative impact on the collective organization. Similarly, many companies monitor Internet use explains the need to maintain a healthy and productive environment. If employees are browsing pornographic websites, participate in racist forums or whole day browse on the virtual shopping, eventually suffers organization. Anyone who uses a utilitarian approach, assessing the impact of specific actions on the people who are directly involved in this process, while trying to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Utilitarian approach focuses on the actions themselves,...