Business entity concept
This concept assumes that, for accounting purposes, the business enterprise and its owners are two separate independent entities. Thus, the business and personal transactions of its owner are separate. For example, when the owner invests money in the business, it is recorded as liability of the business to the owner. Similarly, when the owner takes away from the business cash/goods for his/her personal use, it is not treated as business expense. Thus, the accounting records are made in the books of accounts from the point of view of the business unit and not the person owning the business. This concept is the very basis of accounting. Let us take an example. Suppose Mr. Sahoo started business investing Rs100000. He purchased goods for Rs40000, Furniture for Rs20000 and plant and machinery of Rs30000. Rs10000 remains in hand. These are the assets of the business and not of the owner. According to the business entity concept Rs100000 will be treated by business as capital i.e. a liability of business towards the owner of the business. Now suppose, he takes away Rs5000 cash or goods worth Rs5000 for his domestic purposes. This withdrawal of cash/goods by the owner from the business is his private expense and not an expense of the business. It is termed as Drawings. Thus, the business entity concept states that business and the owner are two separate/distinct persons. Accordingly, any expenses incurred by owner for himself or his family from business will be considered as expenses and it will be shown as drawings.
Money measurement concept
This concept assumes that all business transactions must be in terms of money. Thus, as per the money measurement concept, transactions which can be expressed in terms of money are recorded in the books of accounts. For example, sale of goods worth Rs.200000, purchase of raw materials Rs.100000, Rent Paid Rs.10000 etc. are expressed in terms of money, and so they are recorded in the books of accounts. But the transactions which cannot be expressed in monetary terms are not recorded in the books of accounts. For example, sincerity, loyalty, honesty of employees is not recorded in books of accounts because these cannot be measured in terms of money although they do affect the profits and losses of the business concern. This concept guides accountants what to record and what not to record. It helps in recording business transactions uniformly. If all the business transactions are expressed in monetary terms, it will be easy to understand the accounts prepared by the business enterprise. It facilitates comparison of business performance of two different periods of the same firm or of the two different firms for the same period.
Going concern concept
This concept states that a business firm will continue to carry on its activities for an indefinite period of time. Simply stated, it means that every business entity has continuity of life. Thus, it will not be dissolved in the near future. This is an important assumption of accounting, as it provides a basis for showing the value of assets in the balance sheet; For example, a company purchases a plant and machinery of Rs.100000 and its life span is 10 years. According to this concept every year some amount will be shown as expenses and the balance amount as an asset. On the basis of this concept, fixed assets are recorded at their original cost & depreciated in a systematic manner without reference to their market value.
Accounting period concept
All the transactions are recorded in the books of accounts on the assumption that profits on these transactions are to be ascertained for a specified period. This is known as accounting period concept. Thus, this concept requires that a balance sheet and profit and loss account should be prepared at regular intervals. This is necessary for different purposes like, calculation of profit, ascertaining financial position, tax computation etc. Moreover, a number of users...
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