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Computers in Human Behavior
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/comphumbeh
The changing face of bullying: An empirical comparison between traditional and internet bullying and victimization Danielle M. Law a,⇑, Jennifer D. Shapka a, Shelley Hymel a, Brent F. Olson a, Terry Waterhouse b a b
Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4 Criminology and Criminal Justice, The University of the Fraser Valley, 33844 King Road, Abbotsford, British Columbia , Canada V2S 7M8
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Electronic aggression, or cyberbullying, is a relatively new phenomenon. As such, consistency in how the construct is deﬁned and operationalized has not yet been achieved, inhibiting a thorough understanding of the construct and how it relates to developmental outcomes. In a series of two studies, exploratory and conﬁrmatory factor analyses (EFAs and CFAs respectively) were used to examine whether electronic aggression can be measured using items similar to that used for measuring traditional bullying, and whether adolescents respond to questions about electronic aggression in the same way they do for traditional bullying. For Study I (n = 17 551; 49% female), adolescents in grades 8–12 were asked to what extent they had experience with physical, verbal, social, and cyberbullying as a bully and victim. EFA and CFA results revealed that adolescents distinguished between the roles they play (bully, victim) in a bullying situation but not forms of bullying (physical, verbal, social, cyber). To examine this further, Study II (n = 733; 62% female), asked adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 to respond to questions about their experience sending (bully), receiving (victim), and/or seeing (witness) speciﬁc online aggressive acts. EFA and CFA results revealed that adolescents did not differentiate between bullies, victims, and witnesses; rather, they made distinctions among the methods used for the aggressive act (i.e. sending mean messages or posting embarrassing pictures). In general, it appears that adolescents differentiated themselves as individuals who participated in speciﬁc mode of online aggression, rather than as individuals who played a particular role in online aggression. This distinction is discussed in terms of policy and educational implications. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Available online 2 October 2011 Keywords: Internet aggression Cyberbullying Bullying Aggression
1. Introduction Despite the prevalent use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the lives of adolescents, we are only beginning to understand how the internet or cell phones are inﬂuencing adolescents’ communication skills and social relationships. Research shows that adolescents use the internet to seek out opportunities to interact with school-based peers (Gross, Juvonen, & Gable, 2002), overcome shyness, and facilitate social relationships (Maczewski, 2002; Valkenburg, Schouten, & Peter, 2005). In conjunction with this, however, it also appears that adolescents use the internet as an arena for bullying (Li, 2007; Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). As cyberbullying, or internet aggression increase in prominence (e.g., Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004), it becomes important to determine exactly what this form of aggression is, as well as how and why it manifests. ⇑ Corresponding author. Address: Educational and Counselling Psychology and Special Education, Faculty of Education, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. Tel.: +1 778 327 8679; fax: +1 604 822 3302. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (D.M. Law). 0747-5632/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.09.004
The construct of bullying/aggression that occurs online has yet to be...