LIFE-CYCLE OF BUILDINGS
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE , UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELORS OF SCIENCE (BSc) IN ARCHITECTURE
WHENU MAUTON .A.
Building Life Cycle refers to the view of a building over the course of its entire life-in other words,viewing it not just as an operational building,but also taking into account the design,installation,commissioning,operation and decommissioning phases. It is used to use this view when attempting to improve an operational feature of a building that is related to how a building was designed for instance,overall energy conservation. In the vast majority of cases there is less than sufficient effort put into designing a building to be energy efficient and hence large inefficiencies are incurred in the operational phase . Current research is ongoing in exploring methods of incorporating a whole life cycle view of buildings,rather than just focusing in the operational phase as is the current situation. Building life-cycle is in the stages listed below: * Extraction Of Building Materials
* Processing Of Building Materials
* Designing Of Building
* Construction Of Building
* Destruction And Material Re-Use
* Design For Deconstruction
Diagram showing building life-cycle.
Deconstruction is a technique practitioners are using to salvage valuable building materials, reduce the amount of waste they send to landfills, and mitigate other environmental impacts. It is the disassembly of a building and the recovery of its materials, often thought of as construction in reverse. Today, the appreciation of the lifespan and value of materials has become diminished in the context of a more disposable society in which new is assumed to be better. Technological innovation and increased availability of materials, coupled with a growing economy, population, and desire for more individualized space, has increased the demand for commercial and residential development, typically using new materials.
According to the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB), the size of an average home in the United States jumped 45 percent between 1970 and 2002, from 1,500 to over 2,200 square feet, while the number of people living in each home decreased from an average of 3.2 people to 2.6 people. This meant more demolition, and renovation, of older structures to allow for new and bigger structures. Demolition using heavy equipment is the traditional process for building removal. Modern demolition equipment removes structures quickly, destroying the materials within and creating solid waste destined for landfills. Some recycling does occur during the demolition process, most typically concrete, brick, metal, asphalt pavement, and wood. However, landfill costs in many states are still low, enabling wasteful disposal practices. Although certain areas in the United States are beginning to restrict disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) waste in order to promote recycling and reuse (see Section 3), some states still have local landfill tipping fees as low as $9.95 per cubic yard. Environmental impacts from construction and demolition activities are sizeable, both upstream and downstream. Large amounts of energy and resources go into the production of new building materials. RESOURCES NOT WASTE
Deconstruction advocates are working to change the perception that older building materials are “waste.” In fact, many of these materials are valuable resources....
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