Browsers are programs that provide access to Web resources. This software connects you to remote computers, opens and transfers files, displays text and images, and provides in one tool an uncomplicated
interface to the Internet and Web documents.
Browsers allow you to explore, or to surf, the Web by
easily moving from one Web site to another. Four wellknown
browsers are Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari,
Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Google Chrome.
For browsers to connect to resources, the location
or address of the resources must be specified. These addresses are called uniform resource locators (URLs). All URLs have at least two basic parts. (See Figure 2-3 .) The first part presents the protocol used to connect to the resource. As we will discuss in Chapter 9, protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. The protocol http is used for Web traffic and is the most widely used Internet protocol. The second part presents the domain name. It indicates the specific address where the resource is located. In Figure 2-3 the domain is identified as mtv.com. (Many URLs have additional parts specifying directory paths, file names, and pointers.) The last part of the domain name following the dot (.) is the top-level domain (TLD). It identifies the type of organization. For example, .com indicates a
commercial site. The URL http://www.mtv.com connects your computer to a computer that provides information about MTV.
Once the browser has connected to the
Web site, a document file is sent back to
your computer. This document typically
contains Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML). The browser interprets the
HTML formatting instructions and displays
the document as a Web page. For
example, when your browser first connects
to the Internet, it opens up to a Web
page specified in the browser settings.
This page presents information about the
site along with references and hyperlinks
or links that connect to other documents