COUN 5004 Survey of Research in Human Development and Behavior Lynette Rollins-Barrett
April 6, 2012
This essay will give a brief description of Urie Bronfenbrenner contribution to the psychology. It will assess Bronfenbrenner ecological theory of development. It will examine the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Model of Human Development how each of the five systems form a child’s personal development. The document will identify which of Bronfenbrenner systems had the greatest impact on this scholar’s individual’s growth. It will evaluate the effects of the ecological theory in regard to what prompted this scholar’s decision to enter a graduate program in Mental Health Counseling. It will state which system Bronfenbrenner thought was most important.
According to New World Encyclopedia, Urie Bronfenbrenner was a Russian-born, American-Psychologist. At the age of 6, his family moved to the United States. His father, Dr. Alexander Bronfenbrenner was a clinical pathologist and research director for the New York Institution for the Mentally Retarded. Bronfenbrenner attended Cornell University, where he completed a double major in psychology and music in 1938. He obtained an M.A in developmental psychology at Harvard University, followed by a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1942. Urie was known for his work in child development and a co-founder of the Head Start program in the United States for underprivileged pre-school children. Dr. Bronfenbrenner developed his Ecological Systems Theory of Human Development which had a great impact on the way psychologists and other social scientists viewed the study of child development and their environments. This methodology explains how everything in a child and the child’s environment affects how they grow and progress though life (http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Urie_Bronfenbrenner.html). In 1979, Bronfenbrenner constructed the Ecological Model. The model is depicted in layers which refer the levels of the environment and the child is the center of these layers. The systems have a directly and indirectly influences on a child’s development and that growth. And, because we live in an imperfect world, those layers can have a negative or positive affect on the child. 4.
The Ecological Model of Human Develop identifies five systems (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998):
1.Microsystems – are the individuals and organizations that directly with the child. Such as parents, siblings, teachers, peers, or church, etc.
2.Mesosystems – relates to the dealings of the individuals in the microsystems but does not have direct contact with the child. Such as neighbors interacting with each other.
3.Exosystems - are the individuals, institutions, and communities that doesn’t have direct contact with the child but have affect in his or her life. Such as mass media, family friends, extended family, etc. For example, parents divorcing or re-marring.
4.Macro system – refers to the customs, values, laws, and attitudes of the culture.
5.Chronosystem – this system is a result of the child’s experiences in his life and the effects created by time. Such as War or the American deficit
All of the above systems have “roles, norms, and rules that can strongly affect human
Development” (http:// www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Urie_Bronfenbrenner.html).
Levels of Influences
This learner was born and raised in Newark, New Jersey. She live in the Valisburg section of Newark which was considered middle-class. She just recall her mother putting in long hours at the Hospital. The learner’s microsystem consisted of her schizophrenic step-father, (who choked her at the age of 5, for hitting her brother); a...