British Culture

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Week 9 Class 1
2012 10:03 17

Based on the questions after class last time - they are going to be explained again. The opposites as the conservatives at the time were known as Whigs. Literature in this period people who write it are also politically engaged. So the lecturer gathers… we seem to have been confused by the description of Johnathan Swift - the simplistic division between catholics and protestants… we are talking… America is predominantly a protestant country - but there are different "streams" among protestants. The anglican church - founded the day henry the 8th separated himself from rome… the (it think church) borrowed… english people on the hole like to have church quire music. When the protestant… grows the… creates a compromise - church. It looks like a catholic church. Because in england the head of the church is the king conformity to church (something) conformity to the crown. Puritans refused to be told by the central government how to worship. Puritans hated that. For them to sing songs in the church was a sign of (something bad). Bell ringing was considered a devilish practice. This is a division that split the country. Nobody could tell anyone how to read the bible according to the puritans. The English rejected puritan austerity. The monarchy was restored - once you restore the monarchy you restore the Anglican church. It is a hierarchy just like the catholic church. Swift is a protestant? So what? He is an anglican priest. He thinks the pope is the devil. According to him the church of Rome is wrong. Men like swift didn’t talk about the pope as the antichrist - he would say the pope was a man of error. Extreme puritans - some of them stay in England. Particularly in the midlands and the southwest of the country. There are various sects baptists… many extreme puritans will not conform to the laws of the church of the state. Cambridge university at the time is a hot bed of puritan activity. Oxford on the other hand is the conservative place. Catholics at the time cannot go to the university, cannot be members of parliament - but they can make money, be mercheants. Our next author today - Alexander Pope - was an catholic. English politics from the the end of the 17th century - those parties remain the same parties to this day - the conservative party (the tories) - stood at the time for centralized government. The other party were known as Whigs. Both powers were led by powerful nobles. The whigs wanted to reduce the power of the anglican church. They established their own academic universities. The 18th century in england begins with the reign of queen Anne. Swift begins his career as a propagandist for the tories. He enters the anglican church. Rises the ranks of the church very quickly. Then queen anne dies, and is replaced by a king who is german - the king is protestant. The king couln't speak english. He delegated his authority to his minister - that way the prime minister was the most powerful man in the land - a protestant. Swift was sent to exile. The caps are very wide between the two camps. One other thing the conservatives were against… England is still about blood and landed wealth. Conservatives believed the land should belong to the landed based - people he yesterday had land, not people who became wealthy because of the stock exchange - these people represented to Swift and others like him a new dog eat dog society of capitalism - that has a direct correlation to literature. Satire objected… its main authors were people like daniel dafoe - wrote tens of books. He was also a radical protestant. The first thing you see with gulliver's travels… there was a huge fashion at the time for exciting adventure novels. These novels tended to be full of boring details - like "we fished some fish...". The battle of the ancient against the modern is about everything - politics, literature… Not prose, no cheap pamphleteering. When they think of themselves as representing a minority position,...
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