Brief History of Film

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DEVELOPMENT OF FILM

Birth of Film
1878| - 1st Motion Picture created by Eadweard Muybridge on a farm in California- Photographed a horse in fast motion using a series of 12 stereoscopic Cameras (00:51 to 00:58 - Birth of Cinema video)| 1888| - 1st celluloid film shot by Louis Aime Augustin using single lens camera in Yorkshire, Great Britain called “Roundhay Garden Scene” (01:07 - 01:10 - Birth of Cinema video)| 1894| - Thomas Edison and Whilliam Dickson invented the Kinetoscope and Vitascope. These are devices for viewing and producing pictures- 1st productions were actually camera tests (01:21-02:15 - Birth of Cinema video)| 1895| - Lumiere Brothers, one of the earliest filmmakers, invented their own device combining camera with printer and projector and called it ‘Cinematographe’.- ‘Exiting the Factory’.(02:33 - 02:51 - Birth of Cinema video)| 1903| - First ever Silent Film made by Edison Company employee Edwin S. Porter entitled “The Great Train Robbery”|

1st slide - Silent Era (1895 - 1929)
* Primarily a working-class pastime.
* Appealed to the large, mostly illiterate immigration population of the US. * After 1900s, film became a more middle-class phenomenon, as filmmakers exploited film’s storytelling potential by adapting bourgeois novels (which incorporated middle-class values) for the screen. 2nd slide - World War 1

* Major national film industries resided in Italy, France, and the United States. * World War I devastated the Italian and French film industries, allowing American producers to gain the upper hand on the global market. Emergence of Hollywood

* Emergence of Hollywood; majority of feature films were produced in Hollywood because Southern California offered inexpensive real estate, sunny climate, and varied locales. * In NY, actors were broadway theater performers at night, while they were making films during the day * Hollywood: defined a whole new moviemaking way of life.

1st slide - Classical Era (1930 - 1945)
* Transition from silent to sound films
* Emergence of telecommunications
* Interested in all forms of sound technology
* Competitions and collaborations created broadcasting industry in the US, beginning with the introduction of commercial radio programming * 1927 - Warner Brothers released the first sound movie called ‘The Jazz Singer’ * 1928 - Walt Disney produced Steamboat Willie first animated sound film

2nd slide - World War 2
* Film production declined, although demand for film still increased. People used film as a desired diversion from the deprivations and dreariness of wartime. * Film was also used skillfully by opposing camps for the purpose of military propaganda. * Patriotic films were intended to promote support for the war and civilian population’s readiness to sacrifice. 3rd slide - Genres in Silent and Classical Era

* Avant-Garde Films
* Emerged in Europe.
* WW1 severely restricted the international influence of the European film nations. Sales of large American Studios were so astronomical that their directors controlled the largest production budgets in the world and could invest a lot in stars, costumes, sets, and special effects. It was more feasible for the European Film Industry to buy and distribute American films than produce their own. * Decline of the film industry leaders made room for a new generation of film artists, andsmall companies attempted to conquer their own niche with avant-garde productions. Examples:

- French Impressionism: Emotions instead of story
* Focused on personal and emotional views of the artist.
* Encouraged untheatrical and reserved acting, and used lighting effectively to illuminate spaces. * Ex. Menilmontant (1926) by Dimitri Kirsanov
- Surrealistic Film
* Influenced by the rising interest in psychoanalysis.
* Ex. An Andalusian Dog (1928)
* Hollywood Films:
* Slapstick
*...
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