Book Infrared Spectroscopy

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 10
  • Published : February 17, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Contents

Series Preface Preface Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols About the Author 1 Introduction Electromagnetic Radiation Infrared Absorptions Normal Modes of Vibration Complicating Factors 1.4.1 Overtone and Combination Bands 1.4.2 Fermi Resonance 1.4.3 Coupling 1.4.4 Vibration–Rotation Bands References 2 Experimental Methods 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Dispersive Infrared Spectrometers 2.3 Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometers 2.3.1 Michelson Interferometers 2.3.2 Sources and Detectors 2.3.3 Fourier-Transformation 2.3.4 Moving Mirrors 2.3.5 Signal-Averaging 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

ix xi xiii xvii 1 2 5 6 11 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 16 18 18 19 20 21 22

vi

Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications 2.3.6 Advantages 2.3.7 Computers 2.3.8 Spectra 2.4 Transmission Methods 2.4.1 Liquids and Solutions 2.4.2 Solids 2.4.3 Gases 2.4.4 Pathlength Calibration 2.5 Reflectance Methods 2.5.1 Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy 2.5.2 Specular Reflectance Spectroscopy 2.5.3 Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy 2.5.4 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy 2.6 Microsampling Methods 2.7 Chromatography–Infrared Spectroscopy 2.8 Thermal Analysis–Infrared Spectroscopy 2.9 Other Techniques References 23 23 24 25 25 28 31 32 33 33 35 36 37 38 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 48 49 51 51 51 52 53 54 56 57 59 59 62 63 67 70

3 Spectral Analysis 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Group Frequencies 3.2.1 Mid-Infrared Region 3.2.2 Near-Infrared Region 3.2.3 Far-Infrared Region 3.3 Identification 3.4 Hydrogen Bonding 3.5 Spectrum Manipulation 3.5.1 Baseline Correction 3.5.2 Smoothing 3.5.3 Difference Spectra 3.5.4 Derivatives 3.5.5 Deconvolution 3.5.6 Curve-Fitting 3.6 Concentration 3.7 Simple Quantitative Analysis 3.7.1 Analysis of Liquid Samples 3.7.2 Analysis of Solid Samples 3.8 Multi-Component Analysis 3.9 Calibration Methods References

Contents 4 Organic Molecules Introduction Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Compounds Oxygen-Containing Compounds 4.4.1 Alcohols and Phenols 4.4.2 Ethers 4.4.3 Aldehydes and Ketones 4.4.4 Esters 4.4.5 Carboxylic Acids and Anhydrides 4.5 Nitrogen-Containing Compounds 4.5.1 Amines 4.5.2 Amides 4.6 Halogen-Containing Compounds 4.7 Heterocyclic Compounds 4.8 Boron Compounds 4.9 Silicon Compounds 4.10 Phosphorus Compounds 4.11 Sulfur Compounds 4.12 Near-Infrared Spectra 4.13 Identification References 5 Inorganic Molecules 5.1 Introduction 5.2 General Considerations 5.3 Normal Modes of Vibration 5.4 Coordination Compounds 5.5 Isomerism 5.6 Metal Carbonyls 5.7 Organometallic Compounds 5.8 Minerals References 6 Polymers 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Introduction Identification Polymerization Structure Surfaces 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

vii 71 71 71 74 76 76 76 76 78 79 80 80 80 82 83 83 83 84 85 86 88 93 95 95 96 98 102 104 105 107 107 110 113 113 114 123 124 130

viii 6.6 Degradation References

Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications 132 135 137 137 138 141 151 152 155 158 161 163 167 167 168 174 178 179 180 183 185 187 205 211 215 219 221

7 Biological Applications 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Lipids 7.3 Proteins and Peptides 7.4 Nucleic Acids 7.5 Disease Diagnosis 7.6 Microbial Cells 7.7 Plants 7.8 Clinical Chemistry References 8 Industrial and Environmental Applications 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Pharmaceutical Applications 8.3 Food Science 8.4 Agricultural Applications 8.5 Pulp and Paper Industries 8.6 Paint Industry 8.7 Environmental Applications References Responses to Self-Assessment Questions Bibliography Glossary of Terms SI Units and Physical Constants Periodic Table Index

Chapter 1

Introduction

Learning Objectives • To understand the origin of electromagnetic radiation. • To determine the frequency, wavelength, wavenumber and energy change associated with an infrared transition. • To appreciate the factors governing the intensity of bands in an infrared spectrum. • To predict the number of fundamental modes of vibration of a molecule. • To understand the influences of force constants and reduced masses on the frequency of band...
tracking img