Boko Haram

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Boko Haram
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Boko Haram
People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد|
Participant in the Nigerian Sharia conflict|
Active| 2002–|
Ideology| Islamism
Islamic fundamentalism
Oppose man-made law
Support strict sharia law|
Leaders| Mohammed Yusuf
Abubakar Shekau[1]
Mallam Sanni Umaru[2][3][not in citation given]Abu Qaqa - spokesman[4] Abu Zaid - spokesman[3]|
Headquarters| Kanamma, Nigeria|
Area of
operations| Northern Nigeria|
Opponents| Nigerian State|
Battles/wars| Nigerian Sharia conflict
2009 Nigerian sectarian violence|

Map of Nigerian states that currently implement Shariah (in green) People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad[5] (Arabic: جماعة اهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad), better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram, is a jihadist terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria.[6] It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2001[7] or 2002,[8] the organisation is a Muslim sect that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish sharia law in the country.[9][10] The group is also known for attacking Christian churches.[11] The movement, whose name in the Hausa language, Boko Haram, translates as "Western education is sacrilege"[9] or "a sin",[12] is divided into three factions, and in 2011, was responsible for more than 450 killings in Nigeria.[9] Though the group first became known internationally following sectarian violence in Nigeria in 2009, it does not have a clear structure or evident chain of command.[13] Moreover, it is still a matter of debate whether Boko Haram has links to terror outfits outside Nigeria and its fighters have frequently clashed with Nigeria's central government.[9] Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 Ideology * 2.1 Criticism * 3 History * 3.1 Background * 3.2 Origin * 3.3 The beginning of violence * 3.4 Reemergence * 4 Assessment * 5 Funding * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links| Etymology

The group has adopted its official name to be People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad, which is the English translation of Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد). In the town of Maiduguri, where the group was formed, the residents dubbed it Boko Haram. The term "Boko Haram" comes from the Hausa word boko meaning "western education" and the Arabic word haram figuratively meaning "sin" (literally, "forbidden").[14][15][16][17] The name, loosely translated from Hausa, means "western education is forbidden". The group earned this name due to its strong opposition to anything Western, which it sees as corrupting Muslims.[18] Ideology

Boko Haram is an indigenous Salafist group which only turned itself into a Salafist Jihadist group in 2009.[6] It propagates that not only interaction with the Western World is forbidden, but it is also against the Muslim establishment and the government of Nigeria.[19] The group publicly extols its ideology despite the fact that its founder and former leader Muhammad Yusuf was himself a highly educated man who lived a lavish life and drove a Mercedes Benz.[14] The members of the group do not interact with the local Muslim population[20] and have carried out assassinations in the past of any one who criticises it, including Muslim clerics.[18] In a 2009 BBC interview, Muhammad Yusuf, then leader of the group, stated his belief that the concept of a spherical Earth is contrary to Islamic teaching and should be rejected, along with Darwinian evolution and the concept of rain originating from water evaporated by the sun.[21] Before his death, Yusuf reiterated the group's objective of changing the current education system and rejecting democracy.[22] Nigerian...
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