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Principles of Fitness Training
Scenario
You are working as a health fitness instructor in the Swansea Tennis Centre and Gym. Your job responsibilities include planning exercise programmes for clients and helping to instruct exercise sessions. Describe in a booklet the principles of fitness training you would apply to your clients individual training programme. P1/M1

OVERLOAD:
The Overload Principle can be achieved through changes in Frequency, Intensity and Time. Firstly , frequency, as you may suspect, is how often you exercise. Most people say anywhere from 3 to 6 days a week, depending upon experience and goals. Training the full 7 days most of the time isn't the answer to improving your body's performance and health. Intensity is how hard you push and what level of effort your body performs to the max . Depending upon whether you're looking to stretch a workout over a long period of time and work at a slower pace than normally, or race 100 meters at 100% decides how hard you will train. You can work at full throttle for 5 minutes or ease it up for 15, and still get the same benefits. When you're working your way up from 5 minutes to 10, then the next couple of weeks up to 30, you're doing something. Time plays a very important role in fitness, but like a three-legged stool, if one is missing, everything will fall apart. 

PROGRESSION: 

individuals frequently make the mistake of attempting too rapid a fitness change. For example is that of the middle-aged man or woman who has done no exercise for 20 years and suddenly begins a very hard training program. The result of such activity is frequently an injury or, at the least, stiffness and soreness. There are no hard-and-fast rules on how fast someone should progress to a higher level of activity. The individual's subjective impression of whether or not the body seems to be able to take increased training serves as a good guide. In general it might be reasonable not to progress to higher levels of activity more often than every one or two weeks. 

SPECIFICITY: 

The principle of specificity derives from the observation that the adaptation of the body or change in physical fitness is specific to the type of training undertaken. Quite simply this means that if a fitness objective is to increase flexibility, then flexibility training must be used. If one desires to develop strength, resistance or strengthening exercises must be employed. This principle is indeed simple; however, it is frequently ignored. Many fraudulent claims for an exercise product or system promise overall physical fitness from one simple training technique. A person should be suspicious of such claims and should consider whether or not the exercise training recommended is the type that will produce the specific changes desired.

TYPE:
The third component in the FITT principle dictates what type or kind of exercise you should choose to achieve the appropriate training response. Cardio Respiratory Training
Using the FITT principle, the best type of exercise to tax or improve the cardiovascular system should be continuous in nature and make use of large muscle groups. Examples include running, walking, swimming, dancing, cycling, aerobics classes, circuit training, cycling etc. Resistance Training

This is fairly obvious too. The best form of exercise to stress the neuromuscular system is resistance training. But resistance training does not necessarily mean lifting weights. Resistance bands could be used as an alternative or perhaps a circuit training session that only incorporates bodyweight exercises.

TIME:
The final component in the FITT principle of training is time - or how long you should be exercising for. Is longer better? Cardio Respiratory Training
Individuals with lower fitness levels should aim to maintain their heart rate within the target heart rate zone for a minimum of 20-30 minutes. This can increase to as much as 45-60 minutes as fitness levels increase. Beyond the...
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