1.According to the perspective of E. Franklin Frazier, the “Black Bourgeoisie played an important role among American Negros for decades. Frazier’s study led him to the significant of “Negro Business” and its impact on the black middle class. Education was a major social factor responsible for emergence of the Black bourgeoisie. 2.By fact, the net total number of the free Negroes in the first generation topped out at 37,245 with an estimated accumulation of 50,000,000 in real and personal wealth before the civil war. Free Negroes in southern cities undertook businesses in skilled labor such as carpenters, tailors, shoemakers, wheel wrights, brick layers, butchers, and painters. 3.The failure of the Freedmen’s Bank contributed to the slow development of the black middle class when Blacks put all their money into the Black banks and when they went under only forty percent of deposits were returned. Chapter 2: The Economic Basis of Middle- Class Status
1.Occupational differentiation is the change in work field for the Black class. A small professional group making up three percent of all workers had gradually become differentiated from the majority of Blacks. Occupational differentiation had proceeded slowly because Blacks were accustomed to the agriculture field and not only until the migrations to the North were had had they introduced to the industrial centers. In addition the Depression played a role in slowing up the process. 2.Black-owned businesses are primarily service establishments simply because of the refusal on the part of white establishments to provide personal services for Negroes. Chapter 3: Education of the Black Bourgeoisie
A.Some “bourgeois ideas” that was found in the education of the Freedmen included the teachings of in the south of the Yankee virtues of industry and thrift. Schools in the North were supported by Protestant church organizations, so they sought to instill in their students the current ideals of Puritan morality. B.The motivation that guided the missionaries and philanthropists in their approach to educating the freedmen was the ideal of industrial education which included the training of labor workers. Booker T. Washington embraced this ideal making him a prominent figure that was loved by many whites. C.The “talented tenth” did not wind up fulfilling Du Bois’s vision because it consisted of Negros being educational experts in order to lead their race from the contamination. This way of teaching went against the teachings of industrial education because it taught Blacks how to think for themselves and to excel beyond the industrial field. “Industrial” education was made to instill in the students a spirit of humility and an acceptance of their inferior status. D.When money is the object of man- training one is considered a “money- maker”. However when technical skill becomes the object of education one begins to start “making men”. The difference between the two is with “making men” you gain the development of a truly educated leadership among the Negroes. Chapter 4: Power and Political Orientation
1.The Black middle class is composed of white collar workers and since the small business enterprises are insignificant in the American economy their political powers are very limited. 2.Factors that tend to affect the denomination of the churches in which the Black middle class takes membership are because of their social status, and the other because of the financial advantages. Many Black professionals have continued their membership in the Methodist and Baptist churches because of their clients, and as they move up the social ladder they tend to seek affiliation with the Episcopal, Congregational, Presbyterian, and Catholic churches. 3.Large corporations tried to use the Black church in efforts to persuade the Negro workers not to join the unions. They were able to influence some Negro ministers until the Negro workers...