Bioremediation is such type of technology in which microorganism, fungi, bacteria, plant and there is use to convert polluted condition in to original condition. Through bioremediation process microorganism act on pollutant or on chemicals due to which pollution occur and help that thing to come back in its original condition. Bioremediation is an option to offers the possibility to destroy or renders various harmful thing through natural biological activity.
PRINCIPLES OF BIOREMEDIATION
Bioremediation is the field of environmental biotechnology .by definition bioremediation is the use of microorganism, to degrade environment pollutant in to less toxic form. in this microorganism may be indigenous to a contaminant area or may be isolated from different area and brought to that area. Microorganisms start utilizing toxic substance and convert in to non toxic form from toxic form. In bioremediation metabolic process is also involved through which different enzyme release and act on toxic substances or on contaminants due to this biodegradation occur. When microorganism bought to contaminated or polluted site to enhance degradation that process is called bioaugmentation. For bioremediation to be effective, microorganism must enzymatically attack the pollutants and converts them in to non toxic form. n Bioremediation has its limitation, some contaminants such as chlorinated organic compound and aromatic hydrocarbon are resistant to microbial attack .bioremediation techniques are typically more economical than traditional method. FACTORS OF BIOREMEDIATION
These factors include the existence of a microbial population capable of degrading the pollutants, the availability of contaminants to the microbial population, the environment factor (soil,temperature,pH,the presence of oxygen or other electron acceptor, and nutrients.)
MICROBIAL POPULATION FOR BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS
Microorganism isolated from from any environment condition. microbes adapt and grow at subzero temperatures ,as well as extreme heat, in water with excess of oxygen and in anaerobic condition,with the presence of hazardous condition or hazardous compound or any waste stream.the main requirements are an energy source and a carbon source.because of microbes and other biological system ,these can be used to degrade or remediate environmental hazards. Microbes can be divide in to groups according to their activity and condition. Anaerobic- in the absence of oxygen.anaerobic bacteria cannot used frequently as a aerobic bacteria. There is an increasing interest in anaerobic bacteria use for bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)in river sediment,ination of dechlorination of solvent trichloroethylene(TCE),and chloroform
Lingninolytic fungi-fungi such as the white rot fungus phanaerochaete chrysosporium have the ablity to degrade an extremely diverse range of persistent or toxic environmental pollutants. Common substrate used include starw,sawdust,or corn cobs. Methylotrophs-aerobic bacteria that grow utilizing methane for carbon and energy. the initialenzyme in the pathway for aerobic degradation,methane monooxygenase,has a broad substrate range and active against a wide range of compounds ,including the chlorinated aliphatics trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethane For degradationnit is necessary that bacteria and contaminant in proper contact and in proper amount.
|Class of contaminants |Specific examples |Aerobic |Anaerobic |More potential sources | |Chlorinated solvents |Trichloroethylene | |+ |Drycleaners | | |Perchloroethylene | | |Chemical manufacture Electrical | |Polychlorinated biphenyls |4-Chlorobiphenyl | |+ |manufacturing Power station | |...