Biomedical Waste Management

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INTRODUCTION
The waste produced in the course of health care activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Therefore it is essential to have safe and reliable method for its handling. Inadequate or improper handling of biomedical waste may have serious public health consequences and a significant impact upon environment. Appropriate management of health care waste is thus a crucial component of environmental health protection and it should become an integral feature of health care services. DEFINTION

‘’ Biomedical Waste can be defined as any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunisation of human beings, or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological ,and including categories mentioned in the schedule.’' - Biomedical waste management rule (1998) ‘’ Biomedical waste is the waste generated by the medical and healthcare institutes/agencies’’ -Keshav swarnkar(2006)

Biomedical waste is any waste which is capable of causing infection and injury or may cay lead to cytotoxic or poisonous effect. - Wikipedia
Biomedical waste management-Definition It can be defined as the process of treating the hazardous hospital waste through different steps and ensuring their harmlessness by suitable disposal. — -wikipedia

HEALTH HAZARDS OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE
Exposure to hazardous health-care waste result in disease or injury due to ; §-it contains infectious agents
§it contains toxic or hazardous chemicals or pharmaceuticals §it contains sharps
§-it is genotoxic
§-it is radioactive
All individuals exposed to such hazardous health care waste are potentially at risk;the main groups at risk are; Ø--doctors, nurses, health care auxiliaries and hospital maintenance personnel Ø--patient’s in health care establishments

Ø--visitors to health care establishments
Ø--workers in support service allied to health care establishments (laundries, waste handling and transportation) Ø--workers in waste disposal facilities
vHAZARDS FROM INFECTIOUS WASTE AND SHARPS
Pathogens and infectious waste may enter the human body through a puncture, abrasion or by inhalation or by ingestion. There is a particular concern about infection with HIV, HEP-B,C for which there is a strong evidence of transmission from this type of waste. vHAZARDS FROM CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICALS WASTE

Most of the chemicals used in health care setting are toxic, genotoxic, corrosive, reactive, flammable, explosive, or shock sensitive. Although present in small quantity, they may cause intoxication, either by acute or chronic exposure and injuries including burns. vHAZARDS FROM GENOTOXIC WASTE

Exposure may occur during the preparation of or treatment with particular drug or chemical. The main pathway of exposure is inhalation of dust or aerosols absorption through the skin, ingestion of food accidently contained with cytotoxic drugs, chemicals waste etc. vHAZARDS FROM RADIACTIVE WASTE

The type of disease caused by radioactive waste is determined by the type and extends of exposure. It can range from headache, dizziness and vomiting to much more serious problems. Because it is genotoxic it can also affect genetic material. vPUBLIC SENSITIVITY

Apart from the health hazards the public is very sensitive to the visual impact of biomedical waste particularly anatomical waste.

HAZARDS OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE TREATMENT
üAIR CONTAMINATION
Most biomedical waste treatment and transport system under normal operating conditions contaminate air. Combustion system and chemical treatment system produce toxic gases vapours into the work area. Microwave, autoclave etc also produce microbial aerosols into the work area. üHEAT AND FIRE HAZARD

Radiant and...
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