Biology Terms

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Absorption- The process by which the products of digestion are transferred into the body's internal environment, enabling them to reach the cells. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A common form in which energy is stored in living systems; consists of a nucleotide (with ribose sugar) with three phosphate groups. The energy coin of the cell.aerobic -relating to or denoting exercise that improves or is intended to improve the efficiency of the body's cardiovascular system in absorbing and transporting oxygen. Anaerobic- Refers to organisms that are not dependent on oxygen for respiration. Autotrophs- Organisms that synthesize their own nutrients; include some bacteria that are able to synthesize organic molecules from simpler inorganic compounds. cells - The smallest structural units of living matter capable of functioning independently. Chemiosmosis- The process by which ATP is produced in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. The electron transport system transfers protons from the inner compartment to the outer; as the protons flow back to the inner compartment, the energy of their movement is used to add phosphate to ADP, forming ATP. chloroplasts - Disk-like organelles with a double membrane found in eukaryotic plant cells; contain thylakoids and are the site of photosynthesis. ATP is generated during photosynthesis by chemiosmosis. Chromosomes- Structures in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell that consist of DNA molecules that contain the genes. cytoplasm - The viscous semiliquid inside the plasma membrane of a cell; contains various macromolecules and organelles in solution and suspension. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - A nucleic acid composed of two polynucleotide strands wound around a central axis to form a double helix; the repository of genetic information. Nucleic acid that functions as the physical carrier of inheritance for 99% of all species. The molecule is double-stranded and composed of two strands in an antiparallel and complementary...
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