Biology Paper on Evolution of Birds

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  • Topic: 3rd millennium, 24th century, 2090s
  • Pages : 6 (1395 words )
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  • Published : October 22, 2012
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Scott Lewis
Evolution Lab
BIO/101
University of Phoenix
Evolution Lab
The evolution lab report is based the theory of Darwin and Wallace and determining the type of seeds the birds feed on an average rainfall in the island of Galapagos. The birds in this experiment live on the island and survival is not easy and it is baking hot during the day, freezing cold at night and there isn’t much food available. Because of this, the birds have very specialized feeding behaviors. An example of evolution resulting from natural selection was discovered among birds living in the Galapagos Island. These birds have varieties that vary in what they eat and their appearance. The specialization developed allowed the birds to survive during the dry season or times of drought/low precipitation when little food is available. Then this specialized tool allows the birds to better compete for food resources with other birds and animals. The objective of this experiment is to differentiate and determine what happen when the parameters are changed over time between the Darwin and Wallace report. The first experiment is meant to study the influence of beak size on the birds’ population numbers. Deep breaks are suited to crack hard seeds, and shallow beaks are better suited for cracking soft seeds. To test out the hypothesis, I was able to change the beak size of Darwin to 17.0mm and let Wallace Island at 12.0mm. By doing so, the average beak size rose over time whereas it fluctuates for Wallace. The clutch size was changed from 10 eggs to 30 eggs for Darwin and left at 10 eggs for Wallace as well as population of 600 and 200 respectively. I also wondered about the changes of bird beaks from island to island. When I changed the cm on the beak, I was able to conclude that these numbers help them adapt to the island and make them more fit to survival on available food.

The material that was used to create this hypothesis was accessed through the Evolution Lab on the student website. I was able to change the clutch size as well as the beak because I felt that those where the most important aspects of these experiment. The determine reason for this according to the Darwin and Wallace, is the difference in temperature between summer and winter and the associated consequences for the life of the birds. The different approach that I used for the clutch size was related to biological characteristics, such as the body weight or environmental factors such as climate. I was able to input the two sizes into the data to come up with the results as far as how the population grows with each size.

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Input Parameters
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Parameter DARWIN WALLACE
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Initial Beak Size: 17.0 mm 12.0 mm
Heritability: 0.7 0.7
Variance: 2.0 2.0
Clutch Size: 30.0 eggs 10.0 eggs
Precipitation: 27.0 cm 27.0 cm
Population: 600.0 birds 200.0 birds
Island Size: 1.0 km 1.0 km

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Experimental Results
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Year Dar Beak Dar Pop | Wal Beak Wal Pop
-------------------------+-------------------
1997 17.08 600 | 12.05 200
1998 17.08 2142 | 12.11 273
1999 17.2 833 | 12.16 401
2000 17.35 2127 | 12.27 447
2001 17.46 866 | 12.37 610
2002 17.69 1875 | 12.47 651
2003 17.89 1096 | 12.57 650
2004 18.0 1924 | 12.49 746
2005 18.08 1149 | 12.65 791
2006 18.11 1727 | 12.84 803
2007 18.2 1280 | 13.02 788
2008 18.27 1885 | 13.25 742
2009 18.43 1100 | 13.32 774
2010 18.64 1999 | 13.33 726
2011 18.72 1097 | 13.48 734
2012 18.72 1974 | 13.63 767
2013 18.85...
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