Biology - Final Review

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Biology - Final Review
(50 Questions)

Scientific Method

Observations: New observations are made and past data are studied Hypothesis: A testable statement is formulated
Experiment/Observations: The hypothesis is tested by experiment of further observations Conclusion: The results are analyzed.
• If the hypothesis is support. Continue work (multiple experiences) • If the hypothesis is rejected. Start again (new hypothesis)

Car Scenario:
Observations: Vehicle won’t start
Hypothesis: Battery is dead
Experiment: Go by a new battery and replace
Conclusion: If the car start, your hypothesis is correct, if doesn’t need a new hypothesis

What scientific method is for or its purpose?
It is a process which you gather information, evaluated and learn about something. You observe something and try to figure out how it works.

Cell Theory
All living organism is made of cell. It can be unicellular or multi-cellular.

Basic Biological Molecules:
Four basic biological groups that make up all life are:
• Carbohydrates
• Proteins
• Lipids
• Nucleic Acids

What are the 6 main atoms that make up the biological molecules?/ Macronutrients • Carbon
• Oxygen
• Hydrogen
• Nitrogen
• Phosphate
• Sulfur

If an organism is considered organic, which atom is primary made of? • Carbon (is the main one)
• Hydrogen

The three types of bonds
• Hydrogen Bond
• Covalent Bonds
• Ionic Bond

Property of Water
What hold the atoms together?
Covalent Bond (Hydrogen and oxygen) Strong bond

What hold molecules of water together?
Hydrogen bond – Weak bond

Dehydration Systems

If you take a polysaccharide (polymers) and break down into monosaccharide (monomers), this is the process of? Hydrolysis

If you take amino acids (monomers) and you assemble together form a (polymers) protein that is? Dehydration synthesis

PolymersExamples
Polysaccharide (carbohydrates)Chitin, starch, cellulose
Triglycerides (lipids)Fat, oil, steroids, cholesterol
Polyptide (proteins)Enzymes, insulin
DNA/RNA (nucleic Acids)ATP

Cell Membrane

What is the function or properties of cell membrane?
• Cell membrane is to regulate the passages of molecules and ions into and out of the cell. Semi-permeable: Selectively allows molecules to go through while prevent passages of other molecules. Remember! Not ALL molecules • It marks the boundary between the outside and inside of the cell. • It isolates all of the things outside the cell from the outside of the environment and then allows performing the proper function.

Osmosis
• It is a passive diffusion where the solvent (water) moves across the membrane, rather than the solute. Water goes from higher concentration to lower concentration.

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Ex.: If a cell is 95% water inside and put in solution 98% water. What happen to the cell? Water goes in and blows up.
Ex.: A cell that is 98% water inside put in a solution that is 95% water. What happen to the cell? The water it will leave and the cell will shrink.

Know the two organelles Mitochondria and Chloroplast
• Specialized in energy conversion

Chloroplasts
• Use solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates via photosynthesis • Are found in plants and other photosynthetic organism • Are surrounded by two membranes (inner and outer)
• The large inner space is the stroma
• It takes solar energy (kinetic energy) it converts in chemical (potential) energy.

Mitochondria
• It breaks down carbohydrates to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for energy • Are often call cell “power-house” because they produce most of the ATP • The breakdown of these molecules in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP is called cellular respiration (metabolism) • It takes chemical energy and breakdown. It takes kinetic energy and restore as potential energy. It takes energy in...
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