Battle of Khafji

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Battle of Khafji
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Battle of Khafji
Part of the Gulf War

Military operations during liberation of Khafji
Date29 January – 1 February 1991
LocationKhafji, Saudi Arabia
28°25′N 48°30′ECoordinates: 28°25′N 48°30′E
ResultIraqis capture the Saudi city Khafji
Coalition repulse the Iraqi troops two days later
United States
Saudi Arabia
United KingdomIraq
Commanders and leaders
Khalid bin Sultan
Fahd bin Abdul-Aziz
Norman Schwartzkopf Salah Aboud Mahmoud
Saddam Hussein
1st Marine Division
2nd Light Armored Infantry Battalion, 2nd Marine Division
2nd Saudi Arabian National Guard Brigade
U.S. Special Forces1st Mechanized Division
3rd Armored Division
5th Mechanized Division
Casualties and losses
43 dead
52 wounded
2 captured[1][2]60–300 dead
400 captured[1][2]
v · d · e
Gulf War
Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwaiti Bridges – Dasman Palace
Coalition intervention
Ad-Dawrah – Qurah – Maradim – Khafji – Bubiyan – Wadi Al-Batin Air campaign
Air-Air combat – "Package Q" Air Strike
Liberation of Kuwait
Order of battle – 67 Easting – 73 Easting – Al Busayyah – Phase Line Bullet – Medina Ridge – Highway of Death – Jalibah – Norfolk Post-ceasefire
Rumaila – Safwan
Iraqi uprisings

The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War. It took place in and around the Saudi Arabian city of Khafji, from 29 January to 1 February 1991 and marked the culmination of the Coalition's air campaign over Kuwait and Iraq, which had begun on 17 January 1991. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein, who had already tried and failed to draw Coalition troops into costly ground engagements by shelling Saudi positions and oil storage tanks and firing Scud surface-to-surface missiles at Israel, ordered the invasion of Saudi Arabia from southern Kuwait. The 1st and 5th Mechanized Divisions and 3rd Armored Division were ordered to conduct a multi-pronged invasion toward Khafji, engaging American, Saudi and Qatari forces along the coastline. These three divisions, which had been heavily damaged by Coalition aircraft in the preceding days, attacked on 29 January. Most of their attacks were repulsed by U.S. Marines as well as U.S. Army Rangers and Coalition aircraft, but one of the Iraqi columns occupied Khafji on the night of 29–30 January. Between 30 January and 1 February, two Saudi Arabian National Guard battalions and two Qatari tank companies attempted to retake control of the city, aided by Coalition aircraft and American artillery. By 1 February, the city had been recaptured at the cost of 43 Coalition soldiers dead and 52 wounded. Iraqi Army fatalities numbered between 60 and 300, while an estimated 400 were captured as prisoners of war. The battle serves as a modern demonstration that air power can halt and defeat a major ground operation. It was also a major test of the Saudi and Qatari armies. Although the capture of Khafji was a propaganda victory for Saddam Hussein's regime, its subsequent recapture by Saudi and Qatari ground forces provided a major morale boost for the Coalition. Contents

1 Background
2 Order of battle
2.1 Iraqi forces
2.2 Coalition forces
3 Battle
3.1 Beginning of Iraqi offensive: 29 January
3.2 Initial response: 30 January
3.3 Recapture of Khafji: 31 January – 1 February
4 Aftermath
5 References
6 Sources
7 Further reading

On 2 August 1990, the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied the neighboring state of Kuwait.[3] The invasion, which followed the inconclusive Iran–Iraq War and three decades of political conflict with Kuwait, offered Saddam Hussein the opportunity to distract political dissent at home and add Kuwait's oil resources to Iraq's own, a boon in a time of declining petroleum prices.[4] In response, the United Nations began to pass a series of resolutions demanding the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.[5] Afraid that Saudi Arabia would be invaded next, the Saudi...
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