small farmers dont get capital to adopt modern farming as thay don't have surplus to sell the produce in the market. they must be somehow be taken out of this cycle of burden by proper redistribution of land or preparing more cultivable land by govt and they should then be given to small and landless farmers.
ways in which we can promote non farming activities:
new industrial and manufacturing ventures near villages
awareness and training by gram sabhas
society also gains in indirect ways due to a educated and healthier population. several years of education and training adds to the quality of the labour.this enhances his total productivity.this in turn adds to the growth of the economy. efficient use of natural resources and invention of new technology have made some countries developed/rich.
economic activities are classified as market and non-market activities. market activities - involve renumeration to anyone who perfroms. non market involves activities done for self consumption.
due to historical and cultural reasons there is a division of labour between men and women and also various social groups. employment sectors:organised and unorganised.
quality of polpulation:
literacy of men is 50% higher than of women in india and also urban areas have high literacy. the expenditure and also its % of GDP has increased to rise literacy rate. increase in higher education possible through:
ease of access
adoption of state-specific modification
use of IT
health is an indispensable basis for realising one's well being.it enables a person to realise his potential and fight illness. our national policy aims at :
improving access to health care
nutritional service to under-privileaged sec's of society.
IMR and life expectancy are important measures.
child and maternal care.
availability of no of doctors and nursing personnel has to be reached to rural areas. just 4 states karnataka,TN,MH and AP have 81 out of 181 medical colleges.
Unemployment:it greatly determines the economic growth of a country. seasonal and disguised unem in rural areas.
educational employment in urban areas.
roghly every 4th person i.e 26 crore people are poor.
whats the definition of poor in india? what are the poverty specific pgms undertaken by govt?
issues related to poverty:
size of families
dimensions of poverty:
lack of shelter
lack of education
lack of health care
lack of clean water and sanitation facilities
lack of regular job at min decent level
on the whole it means living with helplessness.
analysis of poverty based on socail exclusion and vulnerability is being common nowadays. socail exclusion:it is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from the facilities,benefits and oppurtunities that others enjoy. the accepted calorie requirement per person per day is 2400cal(rs 328/month) in rural and 2100cal(rs 454/month) in urban areas.
the poverty is not same in all aspects:
1. all social groups are not equally disadvantaged. 43% of SC,51% of ST social groups are poor. 2.economic groups like 50% of rural landless households,50% of urban casual labour houseeholds are not able to meet basic req's. 3.also women,female infants and elderly people of a family suffer more. 4. there is also inter state disparities.
how land reforms can help to reduce to poverty as happpened in WB? global poverty scenario: 21% (i.e % of people who earn <1$ per day ) in 2001.
causes of poverty:
1.colonial laws disouraged local performers like artisans,textile workers.british favoured plans that benefit their people. 2.high popln growth.
3.low growth rate of economic development.
4.caste system amd uneven land distribution in the past