In the Labor Supply Model, consumer has a choice between consumption and leisure. If they were to reduce their leisure and allocate more time working, they will be able to consume more. The amount of labor and consumption are determined by the interaction of consumer’s preferences and budget constraint. In this model, the utility function to be maximized is U(C,L), where individual cares about consumption (C) and leisure (L). The utility function is subjected to the budget constraint of

“Pc” denoted the price of consumption goods and “C” indicates the consumption. “W” is the wage rate or the opportunity cost of forgoing leisure and the portion of (-R) is the number of hourly works, or labor hours (L). “M” stands for the non-labor income or unearned income. The equation can be rearranged into: P*C + W*R = W* +m

“M”, the non-labor income, divided by price of consumption (Pc), will provide us with the amount of endowment consumption, “”. Therefore, = M/pc. The equation will be P*C + W*R = W* + P* This equation stated that the value of a consumer’s consumption plus his or her leisure has to equal to the value of endowment of consumption and the endowment of time. The right hand-side of the equation (W* +P* ) represents a person’s full income (S). In other word, it’s an amount that a person could earn if he devoted all his time to work. Through this equation of budget constraint, it’s clear that the utility maximization problem is just a standard consumer choice problem with “C” and “L” as the two commodities that can be bought in the market. The budget constraint when rewrite the equation we get: C = + (W*)/P – (W/P)*R

The slope of budget constraint is (-W/P). The endowment is the point where they spend all hours on relaxation and do not work at all; their endowment consumption is .

...1. Which equation below represents the quadratic formula?
*a. -b±b2-4ac2a = x
b. a2+b2=c2
c. fx=a0+n=1∞ancosnπxL+bnsinnπxL
2. Which of the following represents a set of parallel lines?
a. Option one
b. Option two
*c. Option three
3. What is the definition of an obtuse angle?
*a. an angle greater than 90°
b. an angle equal to 90°
c. an angle less than 90°
4. Which formula below represents the area of a circle?
a. A=2πr
*b. A=πr2
c. A=π2r
d. A= √π
5.
What geometric term is represented by the image below?
a. a corner
*b. a cross-section
c. the circumference
d. the perimeter
11. Using the data in the table below, calculate the mean, or average, number of points scored by Player B.
| Game 1 | Game 2 | Game 3 | Game 4 | Game 5 |
Player A | 13 | 12 | 9 | 11 | 13 |
Player B | 12 | 11 | 15 | 20 | 12 |
*a. 14
b. 11.5
c. 13
d. 13.67
6. This instrument is commonly used by surveyors. It measures horizontal and vertical angles to determine the location of a point from other known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly. What is it called?
a. triangulator
b. binocular
c. tripod
*d. theodolite
7. What is the name of the missing shape in the flowchart below?
a. Acute
b. Obtuse
*c. Isosceles
d. Right
8. What category includes all of the items on the list below?
* Square
* Rectangle
*...

...It is too hard to take out the negative points on this matter because it is truth but like everything, it’s also included in both points, negative as well as in positive. Before considering the nature of its rareness, it is essential to know the relation of a country with its people who are living in it as well as those who have migrated from it. A place or an area always called a country when some people live in it with sincerity. Both have equal rights to do work for one another. If it is necessary for the country to give relaxation or leisure time to the people or in other words, security of every person so it is also requisite for the people to make their country best among this world. As the country runs by government, like this the government runs or works by the people. A country doesn’t effect by the inflation rate in market but it is accomplished by that citizenry who ne’er like to work in their nation with un-assumingness. A country always tries to be independent when they see some positive points in it or when they find some kind of elements and natural resources on behalf of which they can boost their economy and keep themselves behind the inflation and this can only be oriented when the people of it become earnestness.
Let’s take the example of Pakistan which is full of mineral resources and creative mind people but still it is being counted in the failure states, vitiated or debased, corrupt and losers. It doesn’t mean that there is nothing in Pakistan. The...

...Straight Line Equations and Inequalities
A: Linear Equations - Straight lines
Please remember that when you are drawing graphs you should always label your axes and that y is always shown on the vertical axis. A linear equation between two variables x and y can be represented by y = a + bx where “a” and “b” are any two constants. For example, suppose we wish to plot the straight line If x = -2, say, then y = 3 + 2(-2) = 3 - 4 = -1 If x= -2 -1 -1 1 0 3 1 5 2 7 As you can see, we have plotted the five points on the graph. They do indeed all lie on a straight line and we have joined them together to show the line. Of course, you could draw the line by just plotting any two points on it and then joining and extending those two points. y = 3 + 2x ..... and so on (see table below)
Then y =
y
x
The equation simply represents the relationship between two variables x and y. For example: suppose our basic salary is £4000 and we add commission to that at the rate of 5% of our total sales. Call y our total salary and call x our sales (both in £) then we could represent this relationship as y = 4000 + 0.05x (5% is five hundredths i.e. 0.05) Then, if we knew that total sales were 6000, we could work out total salary: y = 4000+0.05(6000) or £4300
For our next example, we will draw the equation y = 6 - x on a graph (using just two points): For y = 6 - x Put x = 1 then y = 6 - 1 = 5 Put x = 4 then y = 6...

...throughout history.
Transition: So let’s start by exploring the types of subliminal messages.
Body
I.MP1: Subliminal messages can be either audio or visual.
According to Webster’s dictionary, the word “subliminal” is defined as “existing or functioning below the threshold of consciousness”.
Basically, this means that your body can sense a subliminal message but it won’t be transferred into consciousness; it’s sensation without perception.
Audio subliminal messages can be achieved by hiding the message at a volume too low to pick up.
Other sounds are played above these messages to mask their identity.
Another more famous form of audio subliminal messaging is known as “backmasking”. It often involves music that, when played backward, sends a different message than when played forward.
This form of subliminal message was responsible for a wave of hysteria beginning in the 1970s as the media claimed that numerous songs hid satanic messages behind their lyrics.
On the other hand, there are visual subliminal messages. These can take a couple different forms as well.
An image (generally a word) can be quickly flashed and taken away before the subject can consciously perceive what it says.
The image is often flashed repeatedly at this rapid pace through something like a commercial.
Subliminal images can also be present as a part of other images.
An example of this would be a word clearly spelled out in the clouds on an advertisement or...

...Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe
Backward Design
Why “backward” is best
Deliberate and focused instructional design requires us as teachers and curriculum writers to make an important shift in our thinking about the nature of our job. The shift involves thinking a great deal, first, about the specific learnings sought, and the evidence of such learnings, before thinking about what we, as the teacher, will do or provide in teaching and learning activities. Though considerations about what to teach and how to teach it may dominate our thinking as a matter of habit, the challenge is to focus first on the desired learnings from which appropriate teaching will logically follow.
Our lessons, units, and courses should be logically inferred from the results sought, not derived from the methods, books, and activities with which we are most comfortable. Curriculum should lay out the most effective ways of achieving specific results. It is analogous to travel planning. Our frameworks should provide a set of itineraries deliberately designed to meet cultural goals rather than a purposeless tour of all the major sites in a foreign country. In short, the best designs derive backward from the learnings sought.
The appropriateness of this approach becomes clearer when we consider the educational purpose that is the focus of this book: understanding. We cannot say how to teach for understanding or which material...

...Running Head: BACKWARD DESIGN
Backward Design
Healthy community
Title: How does a healthy community look like? Subject: English
Topic: Healthy community Grade: 7 Designer: laila
Established Goals:
Talking and listening:
• Communicate in simple formal and informal situations, expressing ideas and opinions clearly.
• Vary strategies for talking and listening according to different familiar purposes and audiences.
• Speak on familiar topics for different purposes, selecting language, grammar and vocabulary to suit the audience and context.
• Present a short speech on a familiar topic fluently and in a way that engages the audience.
• Follow or give oral instructions for directions, for example, for a game, recipe or learning activity.
• Work in groups, brainstorm and conferencing in order to deliver a group report.
• Self-correct when speaking.
Reading:
• Use strategies to read and respond to a range of simple texts for information and enjoyment, making connections between the text and their own experiences.
Read and respond to a range of written and visual texts produced for a range of purposes and audiences.
• Identify how sentences or paragraphs are organized to present information.
• Find specific information in a range of simple factual texts.
• Use an English dictionary to check the meaning and uses of new...

...The novel Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy is a social commentary on the problems of late 1800’s society. Bellamy compares the negative afflictions of his time to an imagined utopia of the future year 2000 in order to open the eyes of the reader. By doing this, he hopes to create a social awareness for the poor cultural and economic values so that future generations can change for the better.
One of the conditions that afflicted America in 1887 was in regards to labor. When asked what he thought was “the most prominent feature of the labor troubles of [his] day” Julian West answered that it was the fault of those laborers who were on strike. Bellamy explains that workers going on strike was an act of self-defense for those in the labor unions. When wealth and capital is small and dispersed amongst many people, all one needed to go from employee to employer was a great idea and a small amount of money. With more movement between the classes of employee and employer, there is more mutual respect and fewer instances of employers taking advantage of their employees or employees striking for higher wages in order to afford the basic necessities needed for survival (34).
This leads to another problem in the society of 1887; private capital dominated while public capital was virtually nonexistent. In this type of economy, one needs money to make money and this invited large-scale monopolies while preventing the growth of small businesses. Competition was...

...greatest value of live load in beam.
4.2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM (ILD) AND BMD (BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM)
INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM
(ILD)
BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM (BMD)
a) Static and Moving Load
b) Diagrams show only one point on the beam.
c) Calculations based on the virtual load.
d) Straight line only
e) Calculations do not refer to reactions of beam.
f) Unit: m
a) Static load only.
b) Diagram shows the moment at all points on the beam.
c) Calculations based on real loads.
d) Straight lines and curves.
e) Calculations based on the SFD.
f) Unit : kNm
4.3 BASIC CONCEPT TO DRAW INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM (ILD)
1 unit
x
A B C
a b
RAY = [L-x]/L 1-x/L RCY=x/L
4.3.1 REACTION
ILD RAY L/L
b/L
[+]
0
ILD RCY
L/L
a/L
1 [+]
4.3.2 SHEAR FORCE OF BEAM
ILD Vc b/L
[+]
[-]
a/L
4.3.3 BENDING MOMENT OF BEAM
ILD Mc 0 0
[+]
ab/L
EXAMPLE 1: SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM
Draw Influence Line Diagram for reaction at A and B, Shear force and bending moment for the beam.
1 unit
x
A C B
7.5m 2.5m
RAY = [L-x]/L 10m RBY=x/L
=1-x/L
EXAMPLE 2: SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH ONE END OVERHANGGING
Draw Influence Line Diagram for reaction at A and B, Shear force and bending moment for the beam....