Background of the study
Drugs, treatment and services are rendered to prevent and cure different diseases that are fatal like cancer, stroke and tuberculosis. The interventions of health care are needed in order to decrease the mortality and morbidity rate. Greater effort in maintaining health must be practiced to live a healthier and longer life.
Tuberculosis is still a great challenge to humankind, because since then, there have been many drugs that are available at an affordable price, prevention is not that costly, but there are still people who are dying because of tuberculosis.
The Philippines ranks ninth on the list of 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries in the world, according to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Global TB Report 2009 (USAID, 2009).
TB kills someone approximately every 20 seconds --- nearly 4,700 people every day, or 1.7 million in 2009 alone, according to the latest estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO). TB is second only to HIV as a leading infectious killer of adult’s worldwide. It is among the three greatest causes of death among people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus (Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, 2011).
Both diagnosis delay and non-completion of treatment are two central behavioral challenges. Patients are expected to seek care and complete treatment. Health care providers are expected to perform successfully a number of actions, including offering sputum smear examination to patients, conducting test adequately, and monitoring medicine intake. Success in tuberculosis detection and treatment requires specific behaviors from patients and health care providers within contexts that facilitate those practices (Waisbord, 2005).
Poor access to tuberculosis services and socioeconomic status play a role in the elevated tuberculosis rates among correctional inmates. However, inmates are more likely to receive treatment by directly observed therapy, a patient-management practice that generally improves the success of treatment completion. To better ascertain and improve treatment completion rates among inmates, health departments should enhance their capacity for tracking tuberculosis patients diagnosed or threated in correctional systems. To ensure that tuberculosis medical evaluations and therapy are completed for inmates, public health and corrections officials are obliged to develop policies that optimized discharge planning and case management for inmates released during tuberculosis evaluation or treatment. These policies should be reevaluated periodically to determine whether such practices should be modified to improve outcomes (Moore, 2005).
Greater knowledge about tuberculosis may increase the acceptance to the control measures with the resultant decrease in the spread of the disease. For the beneficial outcome of health education, socioeconomic factors should be taken into account in the design of information about TB and psychological implication about tuberculosis must be given attention (Ottoa, 2007).
Transmission of tuberculosis in prisons is also particularly dangerous as it often involves resistant strains. Thus, effective MTB infection control in prisons is necessary to protect the well-being of both prisoners and the wider community(Hussain, 2003).
Prisons constitute a high risk group for acquisition of MTB infection and development of TB compared with the general population due to the overcrowding, closed living conditions, insufficient ventilation, generally low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, and poor health of prison inmates. There is increasing recognition that the high risk of MTB infection in prison settings poses a problem not only for those imprisoned but also for society at large. Prisoners are often highly mobile, circulating within the prison system, and they may release after some time(Hussain, 2003).
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