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Code switching: - Definition:
The practice of oscillate between two languages or between two dialects or registers of the same language. Code switching (CS) occurs far more often in conversation than in writing.

According to Numan and carter the term defined as "a phenomenon of switching from one language to another in the same discourse.

Trudgill,"speakers switch to manipulate or influence or define the situation as they wish and to convey nuances of meaning and personal intention".

Kinds of switching:

1. Situational code-switching: the situation determines the choice of language 2. Conversational code-switching: the topic of the conversation dictates the choice of language. 3. Metaphorical code-switching: the choice of language determines the situation. Example:

* "Code-switching performs several functions (Zentella, 1985). First, people may use code-switching to hide fluency or memory problems in the second language (but this accounts for about only 10 percent of code switches). Second, code-switching is used to mark switching from informal situations (using native languages) to formal situations (using second language). Third, code-switching is used to exert control, especially between parents and children. Fourth, code-switching is used to align speakers with others in specific situations (e.g., defining oneself as a member of an ethnic group). Code-switching also 'functions to announce specific identities, create certain meanings, and facilitate particular interpersonal relationships' (Johnson, 2000, p. 184)." (William B. Gudykunst, Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication, 4th ed. Sage, 2004)

Code-mixing refers to the mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in speech. “The process whereby speakers indulge in code-switching between languages of such rapidity and density, even within sentences and phrases, that it is not really possible to say at any given time which language they are speaking."

Numan and Carter define code-mixing as, “a phenomenon of switching from one language to another in the same discourse.” According to Berthold, Mangubhai and Bartorowiez 1997, code-mixing occurs when speakers shift from one language to the other in the midst of their conversation. Thus this definition accommodates inter-sentential switching and intra-sentential mixing both under the term code switching. Code-mixing is an interesting phenomenon in bilingual societies. FEATURES OF CODE MIXING:

Code-mixing is a phenomenon of switching one language to another in such communities where people are bilingualism or multilingualism. If we talk about features of code mixing then we come to know that; Sridhar, a linguist, has elaborated the following three features of code mixing through analysis of a text. These features are an applicable on the everyday language use: * The mixed elements are on every level of grammatical organization such as noun, verbs, attributive and predicative adjectives, and noun phrases etc.

* The mixed elements are not specifically culture oriented or ‘culture bond’. They are mostly from day to day life and every day usage items, which have acceptable equivalent in the language in which they are mixed.

* The mixed elements obey the rules of the original language from which they are taken as far as their grammatical organization is concerned.


* Intra-lexical code mixing:
* Involving a change of pronunciation
* Intra-sentential switching / code mixing
* This kind of code mixing which occurs within a word boundary. The insertion of well-defined chunks of language B into a sentence that otherwise belongs to language A.  Insertion of words from one language into a structure of another language. * INVOLVING A CHANGE OF PRONUNCIATION:

* This kind of code mixing occurs at the phonological level, as when Indonesian people say an English...
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