What two conjugal roles does Parson identify? Why does he believe this?(functionalist) * Instrumental Role-Male, breadwinner, wage earner
* Expressive role-Female, home maker, nurturing role
* Because the domestic division of labour is biologically based What two types of conjugal roles does Bott identify?
* Segregated conjugal roles- wife and husband have specified roles within the family and spent their leisure time separately. * Joint conjugal roles- couples share domestic tasks and leisure time. What segregated roles did Young and Willmott find in working class extended families in 1950s? * Segregated conjugal roles
Whose theory is the symmetrical family and what is it?
* Willmott and Young
* Sees a long term trend towards joint conjugal roles
* Most women not go out to work
* Men help with the house work and childcare (the new man) * Couples spend their leisure time together. Men have become more home centred and the family more privatised. Why do feminists reject the march of progress and symmetrical family? * Because they see the family as patriarchal, not symmetrical or equal. * Women still do most of the housework and childcare.
What role does Oakly see as a wife’s primary role?
* The housewife role.
* It is the result of industrialisation and factory production in the 19th century. * Women were excluded from the work force.
* The housewife role is socially constructed
How does Oakly criticise Wilmott and Young’s symmetrical family theory? * They exaggerated men’s role: although husbands ‘helped’, this could include just ironing their own shirt once a week.
What does Bolton argue about the domestic division of labour? * We need to look at who is responsible for tasks, not just who performs them. * Less than 1 in 5 husbands took a major part in childcare What is the impact of women working?
* Leading to a more equal division of labour?
* Men whose wives work full-time do more domestic work. (Gershuny) * Couples are gradually adapting to women working full-time (Gershuny) * Domestic tasks are still sex-typed e.g. men do DIY (Gershuny) What is Schors argument about the housewife role?
* Its dying out due to labour saving devices, which make domestic labour easier so more men are willing to help with housework. Do feminists believe that women being in paid work has helped even the domestic division of labour? Why? * No
* It has simply lead to the dual burden of paid work and domestic work. * Ferri and smith- has little impact, under 4% of fathers are the main chid-carer * Morris- even when wife works and husband is unemployed, she still did most of the housework. What is the triple shift and who found it?
* Duncombe and Marsden
* Found that women were required to do emotion work, domestic work and paid work. Do same sex couples have an equal division of labour?
* Dunne found a more equal division of labour.
* Lesbians do not link household tasks to gender scripts, so they were more open to negotiation and thus more equal.
Are resources shared evenly among the husband and wife?
* No Kempson found that women in low income families denied their own needs to make ends meet. * Even in households with adequate incomes, resources are often shared unequally, leaving women in poverty What are the two types of control over family income?
* Pahl and Vogler identify these as:
* The allowance system- men give their wives an allowance from which they budget to meet the family’s needs. * Pooling- where partners work and have joint responsibility for spending Are decisions in the family made jointly?
* Edgell found that very important decisions were made by the husband, important decisions made jointly and less important decisions made by the wife. What are the explanations for inequalities in decision making? * Men have more...