Art Ism's Essay

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The development of Art has increasingly changed since the 20th century, due to the influences of many great artists, movements and how Reality and Illusion is used within their works. The art movements and the developing revolution also created a great change in the acceptance of what art is. The six major movements which changed the world of art began in the 1850’s when Impressionism was founded. Impressionism was followed by Fauvism in the early 1900’s which influenced the next 4 isms, Expressionism, Cubism, Futurism and Surrealism, Reality and Illusion is uniquely shown in each movement and many artworks show this as a theme. Impressionism began in 1850, and was the major movement of the 19th century. Impressionism developed in France during the increased industrialization and considered a reaction to the traditional and strict styles of art. Impressionist painters’ artwork was considered ‘unfinished’ and only an impression of a certain subject, because of the techniques involved. During this time period the invention of the flat brush evolved the style of painting, the impressionist painters used short flat brushstrokes with quick movements. The main purpose of impressionism was to quickly capture light before it changed and worked to ‘capture a fleeting moment’, which created lesser detailed artworks. The founder of impressionism, Claude Monet was mainly influenced by romanticism which was characterised by the artist’s attitudes and feelings towards a certain subject matter and worked to capture a certain event. Impressionist painters always used the broken colour technique without careful mixing and blending to create only an impression of a scene. Colours used to create these artworks were usually bold spectrum colours which were painted in short quick brushstrokes side by side; this created an illusion of optical mixing. These concepts were first invented by Monet which is shown in his famous painting of ‘Waterlily Pond’ where he painted the same scene throughout the last 30 years of his life. Monet’s aim was to capture different atmospheres and seasons and painted ‘plein air’ which means painting outdoors. The Impressionists painted scenes from everyday life, nature, people and still life and their purpose was to paint not the actual subject matter but the air around them which was why the artists painted a scene quickly before the light could change. This created a sense of reality in their works as the atmosphere and light shown in the paintings represented real life and the proportion represented real life, although the technique the impressionists used also showed illusion as there was no fine detail close up in their artwork. Fauvism began in 1905, and was the start of the first high impact art movement of the 20th century. Fauvism grew from pointillism and was greatly influenced by Impressionism as both movements showed light and space through the use of colour and similar ideas of showing reality and illusion, and was developed during the time of global contradictions. Henri Matisse first used fauvism in his works and they were considered naive because of the simple techniques in this movement, there was no use of tone and only flat bold primary colours were used, this was because the main aim was for the colour to create the mood of the artwork. The composition was the main focus in fauvism as it created the emotion of the artwork, simplified lines were exaggerated and perspectives were distorted as the artists used very loose brushstrokes. Critics considered fauvism works naive and were named ‘les fauves’ which meant the work of wild beasts. Henri Matisse was born into the changing 20th century, after 2 world wars, the industrial revolution, the worldwide deaths of the influenza, the great depression and the atomic bombs. He wanted to show joy, happiness and comfort through his works and possessed a light mood through his subject matter. His famous painting ‘the tablecloth’, which considered Matisse as...
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