Art History

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•Chapter 1 Notes - Prehistoric Period
oPaleolithic Period – "Old Stone Age"
Old and primitive period
Around 50,000BC
Artwork consisted of cave paintings
Brutal period
Average life expectancy was about 20 years
oNeolithic Period – "New Stone Age"
Begins around 9,000BC
Neolithic Revolution
oAllows people luxury of staying in one place; stability and performance oCornerstone of civilization
•Domestic Architecture
oWigwam, Huts, Lean-to's
oNative American Indians were considered "Neolithic"
•Refined tools
oSpears, Bows and Arrows
•Domesticated Animals
oHallmark of luxury, stability, and permanence
•Pottery – clay art
oBowls and containers
oExquisite decoration
•Aesthetics – the love of beauty, the need for beauty
oSeparates man from the animals
Around 5,000BC
•Writing and reading
"Urban" Life
•Division of labor – farmers, merchants, kings, priest, etc. Organized Religion
•Before civilization, there was just shamanism
Monumental architecture
•Great Wall, Coliseum
oCradles of Civilization
Cannot trace civilization back any further
All started around same time
Alls started independently
Mesopotamia – present day Iraq
•Earliest Cradle
•Around 4,000BC
•Around 3,000BC
Southern India
•Around 3,000BC
•Around 2,800BC
•Composed of two separated and distinct cradles of civilization
•Chapter 2 – Egyptian Art
oEgypt – Latin named coined by Romans
oAround 2,800-2,200BC
oOriginally divided into tow separated kingdoms
Upper kingdom
Lower kingdom
oAround 3,000BC two kingdoms merged into one
Remained intact for 3,000 years
oPg. 49 – Palette of King Narmar
Celebrated reunion of two kingdoms
Narmar is the legendary founder of Egypt
oPg. 51 – Portrait of Hesy-ra
Head is in profile (side view), body straight towards you lower body in profile Pictures were drawn like this for about 3,000 years oEgyptian art is often called stylized art
Follows a formula
Referred to as a changeless art, or a static art
Very few changes
oPg. 51 – Mastaba
Egyptian tomb
Derived form Arabic word meaning "foot stool"
Modeled after Egyptian houses only smaller and made of more permanent material •While houses were made of clay (adobe) tombs were made of bricks Body's buried below ground, white top, house-like, structure, was used for prayer Ideally, reserved for one family, however the poor would often share oPharaoh – Egyptian's Ruler

At first were buried in Mustaba's until:
Pharaoh Zosar commissioned Imhotep (worlds first artist) to build him "the largest structure in the history of the world" oPyramids
Pg. 52 – Step Pyramid of King Zosar
•Built in Sacara – oldest know cemetery in the world
•Sacara is more of a shrine than a cemetery
oWas an oasis of greenery
oArtificially irrigated
oAll buildings built of or faced with alabaster or limestone oBrilliantly vivid colors
Pyramid complex had living quarters for priests, groundskeepers, visiting quarters Pg. 53 – Pyramid Layout
•Egyptians are buried with their material possessions
•Contained large warehouses for pharaoh's possessions
Pg. 53 – Papyrus Columns
•Tops carved into shape of papyrus plant
•Brightly painted
•Recessed into the wall
•Don't serve any structural purpose
•Simply there for aesthetics
•Use to break-up the monotony of the wall
Pg. 54 – Pyramid Complex at Giza
•Only one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world (oldest and largest wonder) •Pyramid of Khufu
oRight-most pyramid
•Pyramid of Khafre
•Pyramid of Menkaure
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