7000 - 5500 BCE
Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic)
Early Food Producing Era 5500-3300
Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic)
Regionalisation Era 5500-2600
Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase)
Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh VII) 2600-1900
Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Civilization)
Integration Era 2600-2450
Harappan 3A (Nausharo II)
Late Harappan (Cemetery H); Ochre Coloured Pottery
Localisation Era 1900-1700
Painted Gray Ware, Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age)
Indo-Gangetic TraditionThe Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) that was located in the western region of the Indian Subcontinent. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization[n 1] primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, encompassing most of what is now Pakistan, the western states of modern-day India, as well as extending into southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran.
The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was the one at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). Excavation of IVC sites have been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. Mohenjo-Daro, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is another well-known IVC archeological site.
The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is unknown, though Proto-Dravidian, Elamo-Dravidian, or (Para-)Munda relations have been posited by scholars such as Iravatham Mahadevan, Asko Parpola, F.B.J. Kuiper, and Michael Witzel. Contents
* 1 Discovery and excavation
* 2 Chronology
* 3 Geography
* 4 Early Harappan
* 5 Mature Harappan
o 5.1 Cities
o 5.2 Science
o 5.3 Arts and crafts
o 5.4 Trade and transportation
o 5.5 Subsistance
o 5.6 Writing or symbol system
o 5.7 Religion
* 6 Late Harappan
* 7 Legacy
* 8 Historical context and linguistic affiliation
* 9 Developments in July 2010
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes and references
* 12 Bibliography
* 13 External links
Discovery and excavation
The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending "thirteen cosses" (about 25 miles), but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century.
In 1856, British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. John wrote: "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway." They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Brahminabad. Visiting the city, he found it full of hard well-burnt bricks, and "convinced that there was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted," the city of Brahminabad was reduced to ballast. A few months later, further north, John's brother William Brunton's "section of the line ran near another ruined city, bricks from which had already been used by villagers in the nearby village of Harappa at the same site. These bricks now provided ballast along 93 miles (150 km) of the railroad track running from Karachi to Lahore." Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, with the Great Bath in the front.
In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912,...
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