Middle East Notes
Diaspora: 132 C.E. by the Romans—“dispersal” and in the 70 CE the Roman’s destroyed the 2nd temple.
Dreyfus Affair: 1894—Captain Alfred Dreyfus (French Jew) is convicted of selling military secrets to the Germans. --Anti-Semitism greur
Zionism – Theodore Herzl, Is a secular Jew and Journalist. He believed in assimilation until the Dreyfus Affair. 1897—First Zimist Congress
Pre-WWI situation in the Middle East: Under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Arab Muslims had been there for 12 centuries. The Jews is the area was 25,000 people
1st aliyah—1882- 1903 20,000 Jews immigrate.
2nd aliyah--- 1905- 1914 35,000 more Jews immigrate.
WWI in the Middle East: British “owned” the Suez…but the Ottomans attacked it.
Husayn-McMahon correspondence – 1915
• An agreement between the British and Husayn (Hussein) Ibn Ali (Sherif Hussein) of Mecca- leader of the Hashemite’s. • In return for an Arab revolt against the Ottomans, Henry McMahon promised support for an Arab kingdom after the war. • Interestingly, the British made his son, Faisal, King of Iraq after WWI and his other son, Abdullah, King of Transjordoan
Sykes-Picot Agreement – In 1916 it is a secret agreement. Great Britain and France decided to each carve out their spheres of influence in the Middle East after WWII Lebanon and Syria would be France’s mandate areas.
Palestine, Transjordon, Iraq would be GB’s mandate area.
Balfour Declaration –
• Named for Arthur James Balfour, British foreign secretary at the time. • The British wanted to keep the Russians in the war and get the Americans in and thought support for a Jewish state in Palestine would sway the Jewish public in those countries. • “His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national homeland for the Jewish people…”
** also read the article on these three deals!
The situation in the Middle East between world wars, during WWII, and
Egypt (p 566) –
• Egypt is important to the British because of the Suez Canal and is never a mandate. • Although the Ottoman Empire officially ruled Egypt, the British had in fact controlled the country since 1882. • When the Ottomans joined the Central Powers in 1914, the British declared Egypt a protectorate. After World War I a strong nationalist movement developed in Egypt, led by the Wafd Party. In 1919 the party led a popular revolt against the British. • Although the British quickly put down this revolt, calls for independence continued. Finally, in 1922, the British declared Egypt independent. • However, the British government would leave military forces there to defend Egypt and the Suez Canal. Britain also maintained administrative control over the Sudan. • During the 1920s and early 1930s, the Egyptian independence movement grew stronger. Egyptian nationalists wanted complete freedom from Britain. • After Italy invaded Ethiopia, an alarmed Egypt and Britain forged the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, which gave Egypt greater independence. • The treaty provided the British military with a garrison in Egypt for 20 years. The two nations pledged to support each other if war broke out in the Middle East, and Britain sponsored Egypt's membership in the League of Nations. • Many Egyptians, however, were not satisfied because British troops were still stationed throughout Egypt.
Turkey becomes a republic (p 570)-
• After its defeat in World War I, the once mighty Ottoman Empire was stripped of all its land except Turkey. Greek troops arrived to impose the peace treaty's terms. • Ottoman government could do nothing to prevent their increasing grip on the country. Then Mustafa Kemal, a hero of the fighting at Gallipoli, stepped forward. • Kemal and his nationalist followers took control of the assembly. Declaring that Turkey’s enemies controlled the...