Apush Review Sheet

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U.S.  History     Europe   England:     Economics  –  enclosure   o   Economy  began  to  revive   o   Enclosure:  property  owners  fence  off  land  for  grazing     Squatters  kicked  off  Hiof  land  =>  landless  population   o   Colonies  =  solution  for  landless  peoples     Merchant  capitalism   o   Merchants  in  look  for  investment  opportunities     Development  of  joint-­‐stock  companies     Nationalism   o   Spain  =  Britain’s  greatest  rival   o   Defeat  of  Spanish  Armada   o   Belief  that  Britain  could  compete  with  Spain     Mercantilism   o   Economic  theory   o   Increase  nation’s  wealth  at  expense  of  other  countries     Export  more     Import  less   o   Colonies  to  provide  raw  materials  nonexistent  in  mother-­‐country   o   Colonies  =  increased  consumers   o   Colonies  seen  as  subservient  to  mother-­‐country     Religion:  Protestant  Reformation,  Henry  VIII   o   Henry  VIII  married  to  Catharine  of  Aragon     Birth  of  Mary  Tudor   o   Impregnates  Anne  Boleyn     Demands  annulment  from  Pope     Pope  refuses   o   Henry  VIII  breaks  away  from  Catholic  church     Forms  Catholic  Church     Himself  as  head   o   Anne  Boleyn  gives  birth  to  girl     Elizabeth  I     Anne  Boleyn  beheaded   o   Marries  Jane  Seymour     Gives  birth  to  boy     Edward     Jane  Seymour  dies  shortly  after  birth   o   Marries  Catherine  Howard     Commits  adultery     Beheaded   o   Marries  Catherine  Parr   Page  1  of  34    

U.S.  History       Protestant  ideals   o   Throne  inherited  by  Edward     Dies  before  adulthood   o   Throne  left  to  Mary  Tudor  and  Elizabeth     Mary  Tudor  becomes  queen     Replaces  Anglican  church  with  Catholic  church     Allowed  persecution  of  protestants     Marries  Philip  II  of  Spain     Dies  from  growth  in  stomach     Elizabeth  I  becomes  queen     Replaces  Catholic  church  with  Anglican  Church     Intense  persecution  of  Catholics   Ireland:     First  English  Colony     Native  population  =  Catholic   o   Intense/brutal  struggle   o   Overwhelmed  Irish  with  military  force   o   Continual  struggle  over  centuries     Image  of  Indians   o   ‘Once  a  savage,  always  a  savage’   o   Fierce  discrimination   o   Persecution   o   Extremely  anti-­‐Catholic   o   Rationales  for    colonization     Indians  do  not  use  the  land  the  way  it  is  intended     ‘Savages’  to  be  saved  from  eternal  damnation     Land  won’t  be  ‘taken  away’,  but  shared   Colonial  America   The  Chesapeake:     Virginia   o   Roanoke     Vanished  Colony     Assumed  Indian  ambush   o   Jamestown     John  Smith   o   Tobacco     Economic  salvation     Needed  cheap  labor     Needed  land   o   Indentured  Servants   Page  2  of  34    

U.S.  History       Temporary  solution  to  cheap  labor  needs     ‘indentured’  for  a  certain  number  of  years     Both  male  and  female     ‘buy-­‐outs’  of  servant  term  if  married  to  rich  spouse   o   Headright  system     50  acre  land  grant  per  person  brought  to  colonies     Not  for  servants,  but  for  those  who  pay  for  passage   o   Legislature  developed     House  of  Burgesses   o   Indian  conflict     Demand  for  land     Bankrupts  Virginia  Company  =>  leads  to  establishment  of  Royal   government     Indians  seen  as  obstacles   o   Bacon’s  Rebellion  (1676)     Against  the  elite  by  followers  who  wanted  expansion     Recognized  problems  of  white  indentured  servants     Alternative  labor  system  needed     African  Slavery     Maryland   o   Proprietary     Under  control  of  a  lord-­‐proprietor   o   Catholics     Established  as  safe  haven  for  Catholics  (at  beginning)     Later,  persecution  of  Catholics  begins   New  England:     Puritans   o   Purify  church  and  society     Make  society...
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