Chapter 9-12 I.D. Terms
1. Washington’s Farewell Address- an essay George Washington wrote to stay neutral from foreign affairs. “We need to stay focused on well-being of U.S. since we are a new country.” For the next 150 years, the U.S. didn’t sign an alliance. Isolationism formed from this address. Twice however, the US got involved in the European struggle. 1) in 1798 in opposition to France & 2) in 1813 in opposition to Great Britain. He basically said he was totally for the Neutrality Act & he also said to avoid political parties. IT will only cause disagreements. He made this address because he didn’t want to serve his 3rd session and made the tradition of 2 per president. 2. Federalist Papers-aimed to convince Americans to accept the new Constitution. Published in New York. Written by Hamilton, Madison, Jay. Patrick Henry of Virginia and George Clinton argued against the constitution saying it takes away individual rights, replicates monarchy, and doesn’t have a bill or rights, and was illegal. The federalists had Franklin & Washington in their meetings=major plus. Led the Federalists to add a Bill of Rights. Clinton also published essay under the name “Cato” going against the constitution. See antifederalists, Hamilton. 3. Anti-Federalists- Clinton, governor of Jew York, foe of Hamilton. Patrick Henry & Luther Martin of Maryland (lawyer) Constitution was illegal, new government will increase tax, favor “well born” over the common people, put end to individual liberty, eliminate state rights. The purpose of the antis was to not get the constitution ratified. Lacked a bill of rights. Eventually this party failed, constitution got ratified. See federalists. 4. Tecumseh- during the war of 1812, united dozens of Native American tribes in the Great Lakes region and led a serious of wars against the United states. Got defeated by Willian Henry Harrison at the Battles of Tippecanoe in 1811, forced to flee north of Canada. Prophet died. Got defeated by the “war hawks” people who seeked war to get the Indians out of the Ohio river valley area so white settlers can settle there. The Shawnee brother Tecumseh and the Prophet urged the Indians not to give up their land. This battle made Harrison a national hero and earned his nickname “Tippecanoe” This made Tecumseh join the British. Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of Thames in the War of 1812 by Harrison. 5. Alexander Hamilton- (1785-1804) fought for Washington during the Revolution. Created “Articles of Confederation’ and later joined NY delegation sent to Philadelphia to draft the constitution. Became the Federalist Party. Apposed Jefferson. His followers came to be known as federalists in the 1790s, not from 1787-8 because the federalists of that time were the people who wanted the constitution to be ratified. Burr was his rival. They complained against each other for government of New York. Burr kills Hamilton. Washington eventually appoints him for Treasury. He was in favor of the elite, banks, pro-British, supports business, close democracy. He created the national bank. Totally against the beliefs of Jefferson. See Jefferson, Federalists, 6. Jay’s Treaty- 1794. John Jay. Eliminated British control of western ports. United States will pay all debts to British creditors. Shall be freedom of commerce (trade) and navigation between U.S., Britain, & British East Indies. Britain will pay U.S for ships illegally captured. American ships carrying enemy (French) property, when captured by the British shall be taken to British ports and the enemy property removed. This treaty was better for the British, not the US. Not neutral, not fair to France. The only thing the Americans gained was that war was avoided. The Americans burned Jay. Results of the Jay’s Treaty was that the US gained valuable time for continued peaceful development, US gained authority over all the northwest, and this was a good agreement about trade with Britain. 7. XYZ Affair-...
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