1. Describe the rise of the American industrial city, and place it in the context of worldwide trends of urbanization and mass migration (the European diaspora) Cities grew up and out, with such famed architects as Louis Sullivan working on and perfecting skyscrapers (first appearing in Chicago in 1885). The city grew from a small compact one that people could walk through to get around to a huge metropolis that required commuting by electric trolleys. Electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones made city life more alluring. Department stores like Macy’s (in New York) and Marshall Field’s (in Chicago) provided urban working-class jobs and also attracted urban middle-class shoppers. Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie told of a woman’s escapades in the big city and made cities dazzling and attractive. However, the move to city produced lots of trash, because while farmers always reused everything or fed “trash” to animals, city dwellers, with their mail-order stores like Sears and Montgomery Ward, which made things cheap and easy to buy, could simply throw away the things that they didn’t like anymore.
2. Describe the New Immigration, and explain how it differed from the Old Immigration and why it aroused opposition from many native-born Americans
Until the 1880s, most of the immigrants had come from the British Isles and Western Europe (Germany and Scandinavia) and were quite literate and accustomed to some type of representative government. This was called the “Old Immigration.” But by the 1880s and 1890s, this shifted to the Baltic and Slavic people of southeastern Europe, who were basically the opposite, “New Immigration.” Many Europeans came to America because there was no room in Europe, nor was there much employment, since industrialization had eliminated many jobs. The “nativism” and anti-foreignism of the 1840s and 1850s came back in the 1880s, as the Germans and western Europeans looked down upon the new Slavs and Baltics, fearing that a mixing of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document