Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. The concept encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes. For thousands of years, humans have used selective breeding to improve production of crops and livestock to use them for food. In selective breeding, organisms with desirable characteristics are mated to produce offspring with the same characteristics. For example, this technique was used with corn to produce the largest and sweetest crops. In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products. Biotechnology has also led to the development of antibiotics. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the mold Penicillium. It is use to treat bacterial infections in humans. The first use of biotechnology was used in fermentation. Throughout the use of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants one of the first forms of biotechnology. Applications
Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons. 1. Medicine
a. Genetic testing: Genetic testing involves the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. A scientist scans a patient's DNA sample for mutated sequences. The tests can detect mutations associated with rare genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington's disease. Gene tests may...
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