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Appendix Outline A–1 A–2 A–3 A–4 A–5 A–6 A–7 A–8 A–9 A–10 A–11 A–12 A–13 A–14 A–15 A–16 A–17 A–18 A–19 A–20 A–21 A–22 A–23 A–24 A–25 A–26 Standard SI Preﬁxes 961 Conversion Factors 962

Appendix

A

Optional SI Units for Bending, Torsion, Axial, and Direct Shear Stresses 963 Optional SI Units for Bending and Torsional Deﬂections 963 Physical Constants of Materials 963 Properties of Structural-Steel Angles 964 Properties of Structural-Steel Channels 966 Properties of Round Tubing 968 Shear, Moment, and Deﬂection of Beams 969 Cumulative Distribution Function of Normal (Gaussian) Distribution 977 A Selection of International Tolerance Grades—Metric Series 978 Fundamental Deviations for Shafts—Metric Series 979 A Selection of International Tolerance Grades—Inch Series 980 Fundamental Deviations for Shafts—Inch Series 981 Charts of Theoretical Stress-Concentration Factors K t 982 Approximate Stress-Concentration Factors K t and K ts for Bending a Round Bar or Tube with a Transverse Round Hole 987 Preferred Sizes and Renard (R-series) Numbers 989 Geometric Properties 990 American Standard Pipe 993 Deterministic ASTM Minimum Tensile and Yield Strengths for HR and CD Steels 994 Mean Mechanical Properties of Some Heat-Treated Steels 995 Results of Tensile Tests of Some Metals 997 Mean Monotonic and Cyclic Stress-Strain Properties of Selected Steels 998 Mechanical Properties of Three Non-Steel Metals 1000 Stochastic Yield and Ultimate Strengths for Selected Materials 1002 Stochastic Parameters from Finite Life Fatigue Tests in Selected Metals 1003 959

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A–27 A–28 A–29 A–30 A–31 A–32 A–33 A–34

Finite Life Fatigue Strengths of Selected Plain Carbon Steels 1004 Decimal Equivalents of Wire and Sheet-Metal Gauges 1005 Dimensions of Square and Hexagonal Bolts 1007 Dimensions of Hexagonal Cap Screws and Heavy Hexagonal Screws 1008 Dimensions of Hexagonal Nuts 1009 Basic Dimensions of American Standard Plain Washers 1010 Dimensions of Metric Plain Washers 1011 Gamma Function 1012

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Table A–1 Standard SI Preﬁxes

∗†

Name exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto‡ deka centi milli micro nano pico femto atto ‡

Symbol E P T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

Factor 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1018 1 000 000 000 000 000 = 1015 1 000 000 000 000 = 1012 1 000 000 000 = 109 1 000 000 = 106 1 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0.1 = 10−1 0.01 = 10−2 0.001 = 10−3 0.000 001 = 10−6 0.000 000 001 = 10−9 0.000 000 000 001 = 10−12 0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10−15 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10−18

deci‡

‡

∗ If possible use multiple and submultiple preﬁxes in steps of 1000. † Spaces are used in SI instead of commas to group numbers to avoid confusion with the practice in some European countries

of using commas for decimal points.

‡ Not recommended but sometimes encountered.

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Table A–2 Conversion Factors A to Convert Input X to Output Y Using the Formula Y = AX ∗ Multiply Input X British thermal unit, Btu Btu/second, Btu/s calorie centimeter of mercury (0◦ C) centipoise, cP degree (angle) foot, ft foot2, ft2 foot/minute, ft/min foot-pound, ft · lbf foot-pound/ second, ft · lbf/s foot/second, ft/s gallon (U.S.), gal horsepower, hp inch, in inch, in inch2, in2 inch of mercury (32◦ F) kilopound, kip kilopound/inch2, kpsi (ksi) mass, lbf · s /in mile, mi ∗ Approximate. † The U.S. Customary system unit of the pound-force is often abbreviated as lbf to distinguish it from the pound-mass, which is abbreviated as lbm.

By Factor A 1055 1.05 4.19 1.333 0.001 0.0174 0.305 0.0929 0.0051 1.35 1.35 0.305 3.785 0.746 0.0254 25.4 645 3.386 4.45 6.89 175 1.610

To Get Output Y joule, J kilowatt, kW joule, J kilopascal, kPa pascal-second, Pa...