Appendicitis Pathology Sheet

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|ANOKA RAMSEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE – MEDICAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CARD | | | |Medical Diagnosis, Chronic Illnesses: Appendicitis / Appendectomy | | | |General Definition (incidence, prevalence, etiology): | |Appendicitis is the inflammation and infection of the vermiform appendix, a small lymphoid, tubular, blind sac at the end of the cecum. The most common cause of emergency surgery in children and | |adolescents. | |Common causes of obstruction and subsequent appendicitis include lymphoid swelling related to viral infection, impacted fecal material, foreign bodies, tumor of the cecum or appendix, intramural | |thickening caused by excessive growth of lymphoid tissue, and parasites. In most cases no definitive causes can be identified at the time of surgery. | |Occurs with equal frequency in both sexes, with most cases occurring during adolescence and early adulthood. | |Uncommon in children younger than 4 years | | | | | |Pathophysiology: | |At the cellular level – Obstruction of the appendix allows normal mucus secretions to accumulate in the appendix, producing distention. Distention eventually causes occlusion of the capillaries | |and engorgement of the walls of the appendix. Micro abscesses form and can progress to abscesses and fistulas. Perforation occurs as a result of tissue breakdown and swelling. Bowel contents then| |contaminate the mesenteric bed and peritoneum, leading to peritonitis and sepsis. | | | | | |How is normal function changed by this medical diagnosis – Obstruction results in distention, venous engorgement, and the accumulation of mucus and bacteria, which can lead to gangrene and | |perforation....
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