Chapter 14 Key Issue 1
1. A resource is a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use. 2. The problem is that most resources are limited, and Earth has a tremendous number of consumers. 3. Geographers observe two major misuses of resources: We deplete scarce resources, especially petroleum, natural gas, and coal, for energy production. We destroy resources through pollution of air, water, and soil. 4. Two kinds of natural resources are especially valuable to human’s minerals and energy resources. 5. Historically, people relied primarily on power supplied by themselves or by animals, known as animate power. 6. Energy from flowing water and burning biomass fuel supplemented animate power. Biomass fuel, such as wood, plant material, and animal waste, is burned directly or converted to charcoal, alcohol, or methane gas. 7. Biomass remains the most important source of fuel in some LDCs, but during the Industrial Revolution MDCs converted to inanimate power, generated from machines. 8. Around one-half of the world’s energy is consumed in MDCs and one-half in LDCs. 9. Three of Earths substances provide five-sixths of the world’s energy: Coal, Petroleum, and Natural gas. 10. Coal is supplanted wood as the leading energy source in North America and Europe in the late 1800s. 11. Petroleum was first pumped in 1859, but not an important resource until the diffusion of motor vehicles in the twentieth century. 12. Natural Gas was originally burned off as a waste product of oil drilling, but now used to heat homes. 13. In MDCs other energy comes primarily from nuclear and hydroelectric power. 14. Energy is used in three principal places in the United States: Business, Homes, and Transportation. 15. Businesses are the main energy resource is coal, followed by natural gas and oil. 16. In homes energy is used primarily for the heating of living space and water. 17. In transportation almost all transportation systems operate on petroleum products, including cars, trucks, buses, airplanes, and most railroads. 18. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are known as fossil fuels, a fossil fuel is the residue of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago. 19. The supply of fossil fuels is finite, once the present supply of fossil fuels is consumed, it is gone, and we must look to other resources for our energy. 20. Fossil fuels are distributed unevenly Around the Globe, some regions enjoy a generous supply of fossil fuels, whereas others have little, and fossil fuels are not consumed in the same regions where they are produced. 21. Renewable energy has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people. 22. Nonrenewable energy forms so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. 23. As nonrenewable energy sources, the three main fossil fuels, once burned, are used up for all time. 24. Because of dwindling supplies of fossil fuels, most of the buildings in which we live, work, and study will have to be heated another way. 25. The amount of energy remaining in deposits that have been discovered is called a proven reserve. 26. To determine when remaining reserves of an energy source will be depleted, we must know the rate at which the resource is being consumed. 27. The energy in deposits that are undiscovered but thought to exist is a potential reserve. 28. The largest, most accessible deposits of petroleum, natural gas, and coal have already been exploited. 29. When it was first exploited, petroleum gushed from wells drilled into rock layers saturated with it. 30. They are called unconventional because methods currently used to extract resources won’t work. 31. Abundant oil sands are found in Alberta, Canada, as well as in Venezuela and Russia. 32. Geographers observe...
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