Culture, Characteristics, Categories and Approaches
Kinship, Decent, and Marriage
Culture is the patterns of learned and shared behavior and beliefs of a particular social, ethnic, or age group. The goal of a cultural anthropologist is to learn about another culture by collecting data about how the world economy and political practices effect the new culture that is being studied. Forms of Culture
material culture – consists of tangible things like houses, clothing, tools, utensils, automobiles, TV, etc. non-material – refers to what is symbolic or intangibles such as sentiments, folkways, mores, system of beliefs and knowledge. Folkways – traditional ways of doing things in a certain culture e.g. pamamanhikan Mores – heavily sanctioned folkways for group survival and are accepted without question as they embody moral views of the group e.g. ulog of the igorot. custom – a habitual practice, e.g. kissing the hands of the elders. Beliefs – part of non-material culture, e.g. the belief of the enkantos
Characteristics of Culture
Culture is an adaptive mechanism
Cultures No Longer Exist in Isolation
Culture is learned
Culture Gives Us a Range of Permissible Behavior Patterns People Usually are not Aware of Their Culture
We Do Not Know All of Our Own Culture
Culture Gives Us a Range of Permissible Behavior Patterns Five Distinct Categories of Anthropology
Applied Anthropology – The practical application of anthropological data, methodology, perspective and theory to asses and solve contemporary social problems. Archaeology – The study of past cultures based on the excavation of their habitation, burial, and environmental sites Biological Anthropology – Tracks the biological evolution of humanity through genetic inheritance, primatology and the fossil record. Cultural Anthropology – The study of populations based on historical records and ethnographic observations. Ethnographies consist of an anthropologist living among another culture participating and observing it as an outsider. Linguistic Anthropology – Brings linguistic methods as applicable solutions for anthropological problems. Anthropological Approaches
Participant Observation - Participant observation typically involves the researcher participating in the culture, subculture, or community being studied and making observations from the inside. Ethnographic Sources - it includes documents, artworks and films that can shed light on the culture. These may include literature, diaries, newspapers, films and even graffiti. Ethnography may also refer to the process of interviewing members of the community/culture who can provide an overview of some segment of the population or community activities. Surveys - Surveys are a common method of data collection in the social sciences
Basic data like age, gender, and income bracket can be handled with simple surveys that use fill-in the circles or check boxes and are quickly finished. Surveys that seek more in-depth information, such as establishing a person's tendencies toward racist attitudes, typically require the use of long surveys that may ask open-ended questions requiring written responses.
Secondary Analysis – Secondary analysis is a method in which the researcher draws conclusions based on the work of other researchers. This is a frequent occurrence in the social sciences, as no one person can do all the research required to understand a culture. Questionable Methods - Experiments and unobtrusive methods tend to be highly questionable methods in the social sciences. Unobtrusive methods, such as recording conversations without the knowledge of the people being recorded. Experiments and unobtrusive methods are rarely employed by anthropologists. Kinship, Descent, and Marriage
Anthropologists study kinship because it is...