ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Paper
RES/342
July 5, 2011
University of Phoenix

ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Paper
According to Payscale.com an individual with a high school education entering the work force will earn less than an individual with the same level of education who has worked longer in that particular field (Harrison, 2010). Team A has selected data from the Wages and Wage Earners data set and will be using the analysis of variance, also known as ANOVA, to compare the mean of age groups 18 - 63 which were broken down into four age groups to compare the average salary of each age group and will determine the accuracy of Payscale’s claim. In this paper we discuss our research question and the hypothesis and show how we concluded the selected hypothesis. Research Question and Hypothesis Statement

Is there a difference in earned wages for workers with a 12th grade education based on the age of the worker? At a five percent level of significance (α), the team’s null hypothesis (H0) is that the mean scores are the same for the four groups 18-25, 26-33, 36-44, and 46-53. The alternate hypothesis (H1) is that at least one mean is different. These hypotheses are simply illustrated as: H0: πgroup 1 = πgroup 2 = πgroup 3 = πgroup 4, H1: At least one mean is different. Five Steps Hypothesis Testing and Results of F Test

Team A conducted the following steps to test their hypothesis. Step 1 – The null and alternate hypotheses:
H0: πgroup 1 = πgroup 2 = πgroup 3 = πgroup 4 H1: At least one mean is different
Step 2 – Select the level of significance: ά = .05
Step 3 –Identify test statistic:
Use the “F” distribution because this is an ANOVA test Step 4 – Formulate the decision rule
Reject the null hypothesis if F-calculated is greater than 2.85 (F-critical) Step # 5 – Calculate the test statistic, arrive at a decision, and state a conclusion:

...Nonparametric HypothesisTestingPaper
ABC’s real estate agency has recently expanded its business and is in the process of conducting research on housing prices within 10 miles of its new office. Team B has been given the task by ABC real estate to conduct the needed research. The team will be able to answer at the end of the research if the prices in Santa Cruz, California, are less than the prices of house in Scott’s Valley, California. Throughout this research process the team will formulate the hypothesis statement, perform a five-step hypothesis test, discuss which nonparametric test was needed, and discuss the results from this data research compare to past research completed.
Five-Step Hypothesis Test
The five-step hypothesis test will determine if consumers have a greater satisfaction when the consumer(s) pay more for the home.
Step one is to state the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis:
Ho: µ1 = µ2 No difference in satisfaction
Ho: µ1≠ µ2 Satisfaction differs for the two groups
Step two evaluates if the assumptions have been met through the Mann-Whitney test selection that will compare the two populations and will assume equal variances with a 95% confidence level, the significance level is .05. The decision rule is to reject Ho if z>1.645.
Step three the ranks are summed and calculated using the Wilcoxon –...

...HypothesisTesting
* Used to prove which are the factors that are actually impacting the mean or standard deviation of the project y.
* To see the impact of improvements after they are implemented
* P- value is critical in making decisions.
* To determine if the statistical hypothesis is true or false, the entire population should be examined, which becomes impossible for large sizes, Random sampling is done.
* The conclusion for the population is based upon statistical significance determined from sample data.
What is a Hypothesis?
* Is used to describe the assumption.
* Is based on the population parameters.
* Must be clearly stated for correct decision-making.
* Is proved based on that evidence from Statistical test.
Null Hypothesis. Ho is a statement (assumption) about population(s) parameters.
* It is the one assumed to be true unless stated otherwise
* Generally describes the present status
Alternate Hypothesis, Ha, is the negation or compliment of the null hypothesis.
* Generally describes a difference
HypothesisTesting
* Let us illustrate the concept using a justice system.
* H0: Person is not guilty
* H1: Person is guilty
* Strong evidence is required to prove a person guilty, that is, to reject the Ho.
HypothesisTesting: Types of...

...treatment), 10-mg treatment group and 20-mg treatment group. Thus, the analysis test result is carried out using the technique of one-way analysis of variance ANOVA (Analysis of Variance - single factor).
Assumptions of ANOVA
The assumptions of ANOVA are: Observations were randomly and independently chosen from the populations, population distributions are normal for each group; and population variances are equal for all groups.
The assumptions of ANOVA are identical to the t-test and the calculated statistic is called an F-value which has a probability value associated with it. As with the t-test, if our probability value is less than 0.05 we reject our null hypothesis (in this case that there is no difference among the treatment groups). This p-value only tells if there are significant differences among our groups. It does not tell us where these differences are. In other words, in an experiment with three treatment groups and a significant p value, we know that there are some differences among these groups but we do not know specifically which groups are different. As a result, ANOVA is usually performed in conjunction with a post hoc multiple comparisons test (e.g. Bonferoni’s test or Tukey’s test) that will tell you precisely where the differences lie.
A set of data can only “reject” a null hypothesis or “fail to reject it”. In our case,...

...
HypothesisTestingPaper
Team A
PSY/315
July 7, 2014
Instructor: Regina Pendergrass
Inside statistics, it has to be understood what hypothesistesting is to find and verify research to be studied. Hypothesistesting is a form of research that is used to show how a certain issue will end or how the researcher(s) think the issue will end in the environment that it is situated. The testing will show that even though an answer may form, it does not prove the answer is correct secondary to the fact that there can me many factors that could change the outcome; this is where researchers can use probability rates of five or one percent. In understanding hypothesistesting, it must be known what the difference between null and research hypothesis means. A null hypothesis attempts to show that there is no variation between variables or that a single variable is actually no different from zero. A null hypothesis is what the researcher attempts to disprove, reject, or nullify. The research hypothesis is the specific testable predictions made about the independent and dependent variables inside the study. With the research hypothesis, it matches what the researcher(s) is attempting to prove true inside the problem or issue.
Hypothesis...

...HypothesisTesting
MTH 233/Elementary Statistics
Abstract
In this paper, Team A will be determining and discussing how there will be an overall shortage of truck drivers in the years of 2012 and 2014. We will be using a null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis to determine which hypothesis is correct. The subject that is being testing is the issue of a possible decrease in the number of truck drivers that are present on our roads today.
A hypothesis test is being conducted to test the shortage of truck drivers in the coming years. Within the past years, the trucking industry has seen a decrease in the number of drivers on the road. This is due in part to the economy as well as the many regulations that are placed upon the industry (Beard, 2011). These regulations include the number of hours that truck driver is able to drive as well as the number of potential drivers who are unable to pass the mandated drug testing and if these potential drivers have a DUI (driving under the influence) within the past five to 10 years. Another reason for the shortage is that many of the younger population in the job force are seeking employment in the technology business; leaving an older population who is in this field who will retire in the approaching years. With these issues at hand, we can now look at the changes and how this will affect the...

...all, the video did a fair job buttressing my understanding of hypothesistesting. The textbook explained the aspects and steps of hypothesistesting in a legible fashion, while the video helped demonstrate a real-life application.
I learned from the text that hypothesistesting is a “Procedure for deciding whether the outcome of a study (results from a sample) supports a particular theory or practical innovation (which is thought to apply to a population)” (Aron A., Aron, E., and Coups, 2011, p. 145). I also learned that hypothesistesting follows a set procedure that appears as follows:
Step 1) Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations
- Basically, a researcher constructs a hypothesis. Then he/she forms a null hypothesis that opposes the research hypothesis in
polar fashion. To help support one’s research hypothesis, one has to disprove the null hypothesis.
Step 2) Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution
- When using two or more samples, one must gather information about the distribution of means.
Step 3) Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected
- Most researchers...

...One Sample HypothesisTestingPaper
Do Major League Baseball teams with higher salaries win more frequently than other teams? Although many people believe that the larger payroll budgets win games, which point does vary, depending on the situation. “…performances by individual players vary quite a bit from year to year, preventing owners from guaranteeing success on the field. Team spending is certainly a component in winning, but no team can buy a championship.” (Bradbury). For some, it’s hard not to root for the lower paid teams. If the big money teams, like Goliath, are always supposed to win, it’s hard not cheer for David. This paper will discuss the effects of payroll budgets on the percentage of wins for the 30 Major League Baseball teams of 2007.
There’s 30 major league baseball teams divided into two divisions. The payrolls for the 2007 30 major league teams are based on a 40 man roster and include salaries and prorated shares of signing bonuses, earned incentive bonuses, non-cash compensation, buyouts of unexercised options and cash transactions. There may be some cases were parts of the salaries are deferred or discounted to reflect present-day values. The following list is in order of highest payroll. The chart on the left is payroll and the one on the right is number of wins for 2007.
Based on the charts if a team is at the top end of the payroll chances are they will have a good season, after...

...Given the above information, what kind of hypothesis test will you conduct? The y-test, z-test, t-test, χ2-test, F-test, G-test, or even the y-not-test? Please explain.
4. (2 points) What will be the null hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis, and, hence, the "tailedness" of the test (left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed)?
5. (10 points) What is be the corresponding test statistics?
6. (8 points) What is the corresponding p-value of the hypothesis test?
7. (12 points) What kind of conclusion can you draw from the hypothesis test you have just performed? Of course, representatives of AFP would like to have the conclusion skewed to their advantage. And so would the representatives from MSF. What would you do if you are representing AFP? But, if you are representing MSF, how would you present your argument? (Hint: Consider your argument based on significance levels.)
8. (8 points) But, wait. What if MSF actually does not know the population standard deviation in this case, would you conduct your hypothesis test differently? Just in case that you are going to perform the hypothesis differently, what would you do instead?
The following information is for Questions 9 and 10.
The tête-à-tête between MSF and AFP broke down, as anyone would have anticipated. They are going to court.
The presiding judge, His Honor Ig...