Huey, M. & Mcnulty, T. (2005). Institutional Conditions and Prison Suicide: Conditional Effects of Deprivation and Overcrowding. The Prison Journal, 85(4), 490-515.doi:10.1177/0032885505282258. Sage Publications. The article studies the correlation between violence, mainly suicide, and the effects of prison overcrowding as it relates to prisoners, the economy and communities outside of prison. The author uses national data on prisons in the U.S in order to show the consequences such as suicide that prison overcrowding causes. The author believes that prison overcrowding is a pivotal part of prison which deprives prisoners of having a fair life in prison which results in depression then suicide. He examines two theories (deprivation theory and overcrowding theory), and how they relate to suicide. The author then goes on to identify the causes of suicide in general and how they are applied in prison. He says that because so much of their time is spent idle, cramped up with other inmates, racial tensions, and the “fight or flight” response kicks in and it becomes too much for them. He evaluates the prisoner characteristics in order to determine likelihood of suicide. He talks a great deal about deprivation theory, stating that it predicts that prisons in which inmates experience a greater loss of freedom, have lesser controls of daily routines, and are denied access to rehabilitative programs will have a higher incidence of suicide. Overcrowding theory stresses the effects of crowding on inmates and how they can adapt to prison life, which can give them a higher chance of committing suicide. As a result of the increase in populations, services that are crucial to the inmate’s survival are denied. The author breaks both sections of his article down to design the framework of his article. He drew the data up from the census collected in 1990 and 1995 which cover 1,287 state, federal, and private facilities. The information includes the prisons conditions, design capacity, security level, rehabilitative programs, and the level of inmate participation in them. This kind of data is good and bad in that sometimes the census is inaccurate so it doesn’t support the claim because it isn’t reliable.
Cox, G. & Rhodes, S. (1990). Managing Overcrowding: Corrections Administrators and the Prison Crisis. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 4(2), 115-143.doi:10.1177/088740349000400203 This paper accurately illustrates the causes and effects of prison overcrowding by taking an in- depth look at the responsibilities of the agencies who have a role in dealing with it. A study was done which asked top level correctional administrators across the country what they believed were the causes and effects of prisons being overcrowded and who they believed was responsible for it. They were also asked about the roles that stakeholders played in correcting the problem. The responsibility of housing and supervising the majority of prisoners falls on state corrections departments. The article covers four sections which are causes and consequences of prison overcrowding, crowding impact, correctional policy making, and solutions of overcrowding. The author covers not only the political issues but the social impact as well, which makes it that much stronger. The article uses surveys, charts, interviews, and overall does a great job with research and backing up the authors beliefs. The author also discusses the role of the private sector, coming to the conclusion that governmental institutions seem to be perceived more important to corrections than private sector groups. One of the charts the author created shows the opinions of governors, legislators, courts, and media, interest groups, and staff organizations. This chart is used to show just how much these people have contributed to the problem of overcrowding, the solution, or both.
Clements, C. (1982). The Relationship of Offender Classification...