I. Definition of Animal Behavior: Any observable thing an animal does a. Covers broad range of activities from involuntary muscle movements to animal intelligence an social behavior b. Why?
i. Exploit animals more efficiently
1. Want to domesticate animals
2. Use as food
ii. Protect and conserve animals better
iii. Academic reasons
c. What kinds of questions?
iv. Mechanistic: how?
v. Evolutionary: Survival value
vi. Developmental: is behavior innate, genetic, environmental, cognitive? II. Techniques for Studying Animal Behavior
vii. Can see CORRELATIONS 2 events occur together in time (not necessarily simultaneously) viii. CAUSATION did one event happen because of other, different from correlation e. Experimentation
ix. Can see causation
f. Comparative Approach
x. Use to answer questions about evolution
g. Observational Study:
xi. Why do crab-eating macoques (Southeast Asian monkey) use special sleeping trees? Each troop had its own tree to sleep in but why? xii. Possible explanations: Food source, predator avoidance, advertisement, proclaim territory 5. Food source explanation no good!
6. Trees were dead and otherwise held no fruit
7. Monkeys traveled to trees with fruit but would return to the sleeping tree 8. Potential predators sometimes chose same trees as monkeys 9. After 9 months of observation, was no predation 10. Most troops chose tree opposite of another troops tree, they did not cross the river to forage in the other troop’s territory. If there wasn’t another troop’s tree opposite, the monkeys did go across the river. a. Supports advertisement/territorial behavior!
h. Experimental Study:
xiii. How do night flying owls and bats find their way in the dark (series of experiments in 1790s) xiv. Spallanzani’s 1st experiment:
11. Manipulation: blind folded owls and test flying ability 12. Result: blindfolded owls didn’t fly well without sight 13. Conclusion: Owls needed sight to fly at night xv. Spallanzani’s 2nd experiment:
14. Blind folded bats to test flying ability
15. Compare stomach contents of blinded folded bats with non blind folded bats 16. Blindfolded bats flew and fed as well as non blinded bats don’t need sight to fly at night xvi. Spallanzani’s 3rd experiments:
17. Plugged ears of bats
18. Compared stomach contents to controls
19. Found deaf bats did not fly and feed as well as non deafened bats 20. Thought needed hearing to fly at night?
xvii. Spallanzani’s 4th experiment:
21. Thought bats might be just uncomfortable with objects in ears 22. Used hollow brass tubes-plugged and unplugged 23. Found bats that had unplugged tubes in ears flew and fed better than bats with plugged tubes 24. Bats need hearing to fly at night! (echolocation eventually proven) i. Comparative Study:
xviii. The case of Hilara sartor (fly type insect)- during courtship, male brings “neutral gift” to female 25. Neutral gift is like a silk balloon; female takes the gift in her legs, the male then mounts the female to mate 26. Question is: what is it about the gift that pleases the female and initiates mating? xix. Phylogenetic approach- intuitive relationship between some familiar animals 27. Phylogy of hilara sartor
b. Empid flies: females eat males they don’t realize are courting i. Males bring gift to female to let her know he...
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